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Effectiveness of Recruitment Strategies for a Physical Activity Intervention in Older Adults With Chronic Diseases

Brenda Lindstrom, Karen Chad, Nigel Ashworth, Bobbi Dunphy, Elizabeth Harrison, Bruce Reeder, Sandi Schultz, Suzanne Sheppard, and Kori Fisher


Engaging sedentary individuals in physical activity (PA) is challenging and problematic for research requiring large, representative samples. For research projects to be carried out in reasonable timeframes, optimum recruitment methods are needed. Effective recruitment strategies involving PA interventions for older adults have not been determined.


To compare the effectiveness of recruitment strategies for a PA intervention.


Two recruitment strategies, print media and personal contact, targeted health-care professionals and the general public.


The strategies generated 581 inquiries; 163 were randomized into the study. Advertising to the general public via print materials and group presentations accounted for 78% of the total inquiries. Referrals from physicians and health-care professionals resulted in 22% of the inquiries.


Mass distribution of print material to the general public, enhanced by in-person contact, was the most effective recruitment strategy. These findings suggest various recruitment strategies targeting the general population should be employed.

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Recruiting Community-Dwelling Elderly at Risk for Physical Disability into Exercise Research

Marcia S. Marx, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield, and Jack M. Guralnik

The article describes the process of identifying 100 community-dwelling elderly adults at risk for physical disability, yet not functionally disabled, for participation in a research project to develop appropriate exercise programs for at-risk elderly. Over a period of 14 months, initial contact was made with 941 older adults, 11% of whom (101 people) were eligible for and willing to complete all stages of the study protocol. The most successful recruitment strategies were a mass mailing followed by a telephone call and advertising in a newspaper with a large circulation (rather than a local paper). Aspects of the recruitment and retention of study participants are discussed.

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Different Muscle-Recruitment Strategies Among Elite Breaststrokers

Brice Guignard, Bjørn H. Olstad, David Simbaña Escobar, Jessy Lauer, Per-Ludvik Kjendlie, and Annie H. Rouard


To investigate electromyographical (EMG) profiles characterizing the lower-limb flexion-extension in an aquatic environment in high-level breaststrokers.


The 2-dimensional breaststroke kick of 1 international- and 2 national-level female swimmers was analyzed during 2 maximal 25-m swims. The activities of biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior were recorded.


The breaststroke kick was divided in 3 phases, according to the movements performed in the sagittal plane: push phase (PP) covering 27% of the total kick duration, glide phase (GP) 41%, and recovery phase (RP) 32%. Intrasubject reproducibility of the EMG and kinematics was observed from 1 stroke cycle to another. In addition, important intersubject kinematic reproducibility was noted, whereas muscle activities discriminated the subjects: The explosive Pp was characterized by important muscle-activation peaks. During the recovery, muscles were likewise solicited for swimmers 1 (S1) and 2 (S2), while the lowest activities were observed during GP for S2 and swimmer 3 (S3), but not for S1, who maintained major muscle solicitations.


The main muscle activities were observed during PP to perform powerful lower-limb extension. The most-skilled swimmer (S1) was the only 1 to solicit her muscles during GP to actively reach better streamlining. Important activation peaks during RP correspond to the limbs acting against water drag. Such differences in EMG strategies among an elite group highlight the importance of considering the muscle parameters used to effectively control the intensity of activation among the phases for a more efficient breaststroke kick.

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Searching for Paralympians: Characteristics of Participants Attending “Search” Events

Nima Dehghansai and Joseph Baker

athletes’ competition level and sex. Discussion The purpose of this study was to explore the demographics and sporting careers of participants attending Paralympian Search events held between 2016 and 2018 to better understand this cohort as well as to identify targeting and recruitment strategies for

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Rotator-Cuff Muscle-Recruitment Strategies During Shoulder Rehabilitation Exercises

Kathleen A. Swanik, Kellie Huxel Bliven, and Charles Buz Swanik


There are contradictory data on optimal muscle-activation strategies for restoring shoulder stability. Further investigation of neuromuscular-control strategies for glenohumeral-joint stability will guide clinicians in decisions regarding appropriate rehabilitation exercises.


To determine whether subscapularis, infraspinatus, and teres minor (anteroposterior force couple) muscle activation differ between 4 shoulder exercises and describe coactivation ratios and individual muscle-recruitment characteristics of rotator-cuff muscles throughout each shoulder exercise.






healthy, physically active men, age 20.55 ± 2.0 y.


4 rehabilitation exercises: pitchback, PNF D2 pattern with tubing, push-up plus, and slide board.

Main Outcomes Measures:

Mean coactivation level, coactivation-ratio patterns, and level (area) of muscle-activation patterns of the subscapularis, infraspinatus, and teres minor throughout each exercise.


Coactivation levels varied throughout each exercise. Subscapularis activity was consistently higher than that of the infraspinatus and teres minor combined at the start of each exercise and in end ranges of motion. Individual muscle-recruitment levels in the subscapularis were also different between exercises.


Results provide descriptive data for determining normative coactivation-ratio values for muscle recruitment for the functional exercises studied. Differences in subscapularis activation suggest a reliance to resist anteriorly directed forces.

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Chapter 5: Recruitment in PETE: Survey Results and Discussion

Suzan F. Ayers and Amelia Mays Woods

this chapter, it is important to differentiate marketing from recruitment. Although marketing can be viewed as a recruitment strategy, it is often housed outside PETE which positions it as separate from the academic unit. Staff in the registrar’s or enrollment manager’s office commonly represents their

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Creating and Retaining an Inclusive Graduate Program in Kinesiology

Ting Liu, Michelle Hamilton, and YuChun Chen

to foster greater inclusivity and intentional diversity within the ES graduate program. In the upcoming section of the paper, we will outline one recruitment strategy and two retention strategies that we have implemented to foster a more inclusive graduate program in kinesiology. Strategies to

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Research Trends and Recommendations for Physical Activity Interventions Among Children and Youth With Disabilities: A Review of Reviews

Byron Lai, Eunbi Lee, Mayumi Wagatsuma, Georgia Frey, Heidi Stanish, Taeyou Jung, and James H. Rimmer

. Rich and diverse adaptive programs 3. Strategies to increase intervention reach 1. Generalizability 2. Transferability 3. Scientific rigor 1. Long-term and sustainable postintervention outcomes 2. Precision-based interventions 3. Scalable interventions and recruitment strategies Promising Elements of

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Chapter 7: Retention in PETE: Survey Results and Discussion

K. Andrew R. Richards and Kim C. Graber

, & Wayda, 2015 ), recruiting and retaining highly qualified PETE students represents an important goal for the physical education community. As part of this larger monograph focused on recruitment and retention, the current investigation focused on PETE program coordinators’ perceptions of recruitment

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Chapter 6: Recruitment in PETE: Interview Results and Discussion

Ben D. Kern, K. Andrew R. Richards, Suzan F. Ayers, and Chad M. Killian

). The researchers utilized a semistructured interview guide ( Patton, 2015 ) designed to examine the PETE program coordinators’ perceptions regarding contributing factors to decreased PETE enrollments, their individual roles in student recruitment, recruitment strategies they utilize, and barriers they