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Andrew Dix

substantiated via sports scholarship that has revealed that referee bias is a legitimate phenomenon in intercollegiate athletics. Classic scholarship on the theoretical underpinnings of whiteness by Nakayama and Krizek ( 1995 ) proclaimed that “in U.S. culture, whiteness has assumed the position of an

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Andrew Dix

scholarship that has revealed that severe penalties are more frequently imposed on Black football players than White football players yields preliminary evidence that referee bias could be a sociocultural issue in Division II college football. This research seeks to address a couple of different rationales

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Jordan L. Fox, Robert Stanton, Charli Sargent, Cody J. O’Grady, and Aaron T. Scanlan

likely to win. 30 This trend appears related to a combination of factors such as familiarity with the playing venue, referee bias, and crowd effects (a higher proportion of spectators favoring the home team). 30 As such, it is possible that to overcome this advantage, away teams increase external

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Willis A. Jones and Wayne L. Black

://goexplorers.com/news/2020/7/28/general-division-i-athletic-directors-create-black-ad-alliance.aspx Dix , A. ( 2017 ). A decade of referee bias against college football programs from historically black colleges and universities . International Journal of Sport Culture and Science, 5 ( 24 ), 197 – 212 . doi: 10