The aim of this study was to explore preservice classroom teacher reflection in a physical education teaching and learning environment and to describe how the teachers’ reflections related to their practices. Two preservice classroom teachers voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected using observations, journals, documents, and interviews and were analyzed inductively (Patton, 1990). Four major themes emerged from the data: (a) the role of reflection, (b) reflection in action and reflection on action, (c) agency for changes in teaching, and (d) nature and focus of reflection. Findings suggested that the two participants considered reflection a necessity in teaching. Student progress and learning was the most powerful agency for changes to the participants’ practices. Results also indicated that the participants’ reflections related to pedagogical, content, and social issues of teaching, as well as pedagogical content knowledge, and that the nature of their reflection was mostly positive across the lessons.
Koon Teck Koh, Clifford J. Mallett, Martin Camiré and Chee Keng John Wang
The purpose of this study was to conduct a guided reflection intervention for high performance basketball coaches. The study participants included two head basketball coaches and 10 of their players who were part of elite youth teams in Singapore. The coaches were highly experienced, each with 17 and 20 years of coaching experience respectively, and the players from both teams (one male and one female) reported on average three years of playing experience at the national youth level. The Singapore coaching behavior scale for sport (CBS-S basketball), on-site observations, and interviews were used to gather data from the coaches and players. Coaches also kept a reflective journal throughout the intervention. The results showed how the coaches responded differently to the guided reflection intervention (implemented by the first author) in terms of their willingness to adapt and integrate new perspectives into their coaching practice. The coaches’ level of reflection was found to be contingent upon a) their motivation and desire to be engaged in the process and b) the worth they saw in the learning facilitator’s recommendations to improve their athletes’ technical and tactical development. The results also showed how the coaches’ behaviors were linked to players’ satisfaction level with their work. The results are discussed using the coaching science literature and practical implications are proposed to optimize coaches’ use of reflection as a learning tool to improve their coaching practice.
Jim Mckay and Donna O’Connor
section provides an overview of relevant literature on coach-led practice sessions and dynamic systems theory. This is followed by the Queensland Reds case study that outlines the data they analysed, the process and implementation of new practices and Jim’s reflections. The final section provides
Lauren Downham and Christopher Cushion
Reflection and reflective practice have become conspicuous parts of coach education and the terms ensconced in the vocabulary of coach developers ( Cushion, 2016 ; Cushion, Griffiths, & Armour, 2019 ). To be “reflective” is seen as an essential part of coach learning (e.g., Cassidy, Jones
Christoph Szedlak, Matthew J. Smith, Bettina Callary and Melissa C. Day
learning professional knowledge, as well as interpersonal and intrapersonal knowledge, in order to develop an effective coaching practice. In adopting a lifelong learning approach, coaches learn from experience through reflection, adding to their knowledge of how they interact with others (interpersonal
Amy Elizabeth Whitehead, Brendan Cropley, Tabo Huntley, Andy Miles, Laura Quayle and Zoe Knowles
This study aimed to design, implement and evaluate a protocol encompassing Think Aloud (TA) as a technique to facilitate reflection-in-action and delayed reflection-on-action to aid coach learning. Six British, male rugby league coaches, who reported little previous exposure to reflective practice, consented to participate. Participants were: (a) instructed on how to engage in TA; (b) observed in practice using TA; (c) provided with individual support on delayed reflective practice on their first coaching session and use of TA; (d) observed in practice using TA a second time; and (e) engaged in a social validation interview regarding their experiences of TA. Analysis of in-action verbalizations revealed a shift from descriptive verbalizations to a deeper level of reflection. Both immediate and post eight week social validation interviews revealed that coaches developed an increased awareness, enhanced communication, and pedagogical development. The participants also recommended that TA can be a valuable tool for: (a) collecting in-event data during a coaching session; and (b) developing and evidencing reflection for coaches. Future recommendations were also provided by the participants and consequently, this study offers a unique technique to reflective practice that has the potential to meet the learning development needs of coaches.
Philippa McGregor and Stacy Winter
The purpose of this paper is to share and reflect on personal experiences of providing sport psychology support to an international lacrosse squad during their World Cup participation. Based on the needs analysis assessments from observation reports and informal communications, key areas of support included: (1) creating structure and routine, (2) facilitating team reflections, (3) goal setting, (4) game preparation, and (5) providing off-field support. Working with this team exposed the dynamic nature of sport psychology consultancy, and the unpredictability of what is required from a team in a high-performance setting. Individual consultancy through informal communications with players signaled the importance of supporting the person beyond their role as an athlete. Team-level support via group workshop sessions was predominantly performance-related, and required the adoption of solution-focused approaches given the time pressure on strategies to be effective. The support facilitated team organization and preparation, which enabled players to be both mentally and physically ready for each game. Establishing stable routines, game plans, and clear goals, and having adequate reflection and feedback time were reported by the players as important facets of their World Cup experience and success.
Terry A. Senne and G. Linda Rikard
A comparative analysis of two PETE portfolio models was conducted to determine the impact on intern perceptions of the value of the teaching portfolio, intern professional growth, and portfolio representation in single and dual internship site placements. The portfolio model served as the curricular intervention during the student teaching experience of 67 interns in two PETE programs. A mixed method was used to discern the impact of each portfolio model. The Defining Issues Test, weekly reflection logs, and a culminating questionnaire served as data sources. One program employed extensive reflective writings and single placement sites; the other program used less extensive reflective practice and dual placement sites. Although interns showed no change in moral judgment reasoning, most valued the portfolio process as an indicator of professional growth. Differences in reflective practice and similarities in dual versus single-site placements were noted.
Laura Jonker, Marije T. Elferink-Gemser, Ilse M. de Roos and Chris Visscher
Reflection is considered a key factor in expert learning and refers to the extent to which individuals are able to appraise what they have learned and to integrate these experiences into future actions, thereby maximizing performance improvements. We assessed the relation between self-reported reflection at baseline and attainment (i.e., international vs. national level) 2.5 years later in 52 elite youth athletes. A Mann-Whitney U test showed that those who became senior internationals scored highest on reflection during their junior years compared with those who only attained senior national status. More specifically, athletes who made the transition from junior national to senior international level had higher reflection scores than their peers who did not reach international status and had similar scores to those who were internationals as juniors. These results emphasize the value of reflection in elite youth athletes to attaining senior international status later in development.
James Stephenson, Colum Cronin and Amy E. Whitehead
Extant sport coaching literature outlines reflection as a complex process that encourages coaches to examine their experiences by questioning themselves in the context of their practice ( Knowles, Gilbourne, Cropley, & Dugdill, 2014 ). This questioning approach has been promulgated as a source of