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Trent A. Watson, Lesley K. MacDonald-Wicks and Manohar L. Garg

Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses to cause oxidative stress. Dietary intake of antioxidants, physical activity levels, various antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were examined in 20 exercise-trained “athletes” and 20 age- and sex-matched sedentary “controls.” Plasma F2-isoprostanes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and uric acid levels were similar in athletes and sedentary controls. Plasma α-tocopherol and β-carotene were higher in athletes compared with sedentary controls. Total antioxidant capacity tended to be lower in athletes, with a significant difference between male athletes and male controls. Dietary intakes of antioxidants were also similar between groups and well above recommended dietary intakes for Australians. These findings suggest that athletes who consume a diet rich in antioxidants have elevated plasma α-tocopherol and β-carotene that were likely to be brought about by adaptive processes resulting from regular exercise.

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Mohsen Maddah, Zahra Akbarian, Solmaz Shoyooie, Maryam Rostamnejad and Mehdi Soleimani

Background:

Regular exercise is an important aspect of physical activity for people living in urban areas. We examined prevalence of regular exercise in leisure times and some related factors in middle aged men and women in northern Iran.

Method:

A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 1425 women and 676 men in 2 main cities in northern Iran. Information on exercise habits was collected using a self-administrated questionnaire. Regular exercise was defined as any kind of recreational or sport physical activity other than walking performed three or more days per week for at least 20 minutes. Questions on perceived barriers on regular exercise and walking habit were also included in the questionnaire.

Results:

Findings showed that 11.2% of the participants (9% in women and 12.8% in men P < .05) did exercise regularly. Prevalence of doing regular exercise was inversely related to age in women but not in men. Educated women were more likely to do regular exercise. The most common perceived barrier for regular exercise was time insufficiency.

Conclusion:

Only a small proportion of the study men and women had sustainable regular exercise for 1 year. Regular exercise was more common among young and well educated women than older women and the men.

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Simone Dohle, Brian Wansink and Lorena Zehnder

Background:

The goal of this qualitative study is to identify common beliefs and behaviors related to exercise and diet.

Methods:

Data were collected in focus group discussions with regular exercisers who were physically active between 1 and 5 h per week. Exercise objectives, beliefs and behaviors regarding food intake before, during, and after exercise, consumption of sport supplements, and dietary patterns on sedentary days were explored. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach.

Results:

Participants reported that they reward themselves for being active by consuming food. Other exercisers had specific beliefs about dietary needs and how to compensate for exercise-induced losses along with exercise-related food likes and dislikes. The participants’ food intake also depended on their personal exercise objectives, such as the goal of performing well in competitions. External and physiological factors also played a role in determining participants’ dietary patterns.

Conclusions:

Results of this study show that exercising and dietary patterns are closely intertwined. In addition, we articulate new hypotheses and outline a research agenda that can help improve how regular exercisers eat.

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Karyn Tappe, Ellen Tarves, Jayme Oltarzewski and Deirdra Frum

Background:

Predictive modeling for physical activity behavior has included many different psychological components, including planning, motivation, personality, and self-efficacy. However, habit formation in exercise maintenance has not been well explored and lacks reliable measurement tools. The current study explores novel survey questions that examine behavioral components of exercise habit, including frequency, environmental cuing, and temporal constancy of behavior. We then relate these concepts to an established psychological measure of habit, the Self-Report Habit Inventory (SRHI).

Methods:

One hundred and seventy-four exercisers were surveyed at 2 private fitness clubs. A single questionnaire was administered that included the SRHI and the novel behavioral questions developed from habit formation concepts.

Results:

Habit formation was reported by many of the exercisers. Participants scoring higher on the SRHI also reported higher frequency of physical activity and a higher probability of environmental cuing. Exercise frequency did not correlate well with environmental cuing.

Conclusions:

Habit formation appears relevant to the physical activity patterns of many regular exercisers. However, wide variation in response styles was evident suggesting further development and exploration of the novel questionnaire is warranted. The ultimate goals are to include habit in predictive models of physical activity, and then to inform interventions to increase exercise adherence.

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Anni Rava, Anu Pihlak, Jaan Ereline, Helena Gapeyeva, Tatjana Kums, Priit Purge, Jaak Jürimäe and Mati Pääsuke

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in body composition, neuromuscular performance, and mobility in healthy, regularly exercising and inactive older women, and examine the relationship between skeletal muscle indices and mobility. Overall, 32 healthy older women participated. They were divided into groups according to their physical activity history as regularly exercising (n = 22) and inactive (n = 10) women. Body composition, hand grip strength, leg extensor muscle strength, rapid force development, power output, and mobility indices were assessed. Regularly exercising women had lower fat mass and higher values for leg extensor muscle strength and muscle quality, and also for mobility. Leg extensor muscle strength and power output during vertical jumping and appendicular lean mass per unit of body mass were associated with mobility in healthy older women. It was concluded that long-term regular exercising may have beneficial effects on body composition and physical function in older women.

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Juliana Souza de Oliveira, Catherine Sherrington, Louise Rowling and Anne Tiedemann

( Crombie et al., 2004 ), and there is evidence that well-designed exercise programs are particularly effective in improving health outcomes in older adults ( Taylor, 2014 ). However, it is a challenge for many older adults to commence and maintain regular exercise habits ( Brawley, Rejeski, & King, 2003

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Mia Beck Lichtenstein, Claire Gudex, Kjeld Andersen, Anders Bo Bojesen and Uffe Jørgensen

with noninjured regular exercisers and compared to norms. The secondary aim was to identify psychosocial factors associated with depression in injured exercisers and the potential need for psychological counseling. Methods This cross-sectional survey study was undertaken as an interdisciplinary

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Athina Liacos, Angela T. Burge, Narelle S. Cox and Anne E. Holland

were prompt as the researcher was alerted via e-mail generated by ActivOnline if a message had been received. The researcher reviewed the participants’ entries a few times a week. During the study, the importance of regular exercise participation was reinforced using the internal messaging system and

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Rachael C. Stone, Shane N. Sweet, Marie-Josée Perrier, Tara MacDonald, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung

Ginis, & Jung, 2007 ). The exerciser stereotype functions to counteract negative societal perceptions of warmth and competence by describing individuals as regular exercisers (i.e., participating in planned, structured, and repetitive body movements with the goal to improve fitness and health, and

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Travis Anderson, Amy R. Lane and Anthony C. Hackney

ultraendurance exercise event during the course of the study (ultramarathon, 50 km), which reflected a TRIMP z score of 2.54, and thus was noncompliant in regard to completing regular exercise training. Since it has been suggested that basal cortisol responses to training are variable following large training