temporarily induced based on situational cues or experimental manipulations ( Shah, Higgins, & Friedman, 1998 ). Regulatory Fit Theory Regulatory focus attunes one to gains or losses in their environment ( Higgins, 1997 ). Regulatory fit theory proposes that when an individual’s regulatory focus (i
Sophie A. Kay and Lisa R. Grimm
Targeted communication about health behaviors seems to be more effective than mass communication in which undifferentiated audiences receive identical messages. Regulatory focus is psychological variable that can be used to build two target groups: promotion-focused or prevention-focused people. It is hypothesized that targeting messages to an individual’s regulatory focus creates regulatory fit and is more successful to promote a physically active lifestyle than nonfit messages. Two different print messages promoting a physically active lifestyle derived from regulatory focus theory (promotion message vs. prevention message) were randomly assigned to N = 98 participants after measuring their regulatory focus. It was examined whether regulatory fit between the regulatory focus and the assigned print message would lead to more positive evaluations in the dependent variables inclination toward the message (preference for the message), intention to perform the behavior, prospective and retrospective feelings associated with the behavior (positive and negative), and perceived value of the behavior directly after reading the message. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that regulatory fit led to stronger intentions in the prevention-message condition and more prospective positive and retrospective positive feelings associated with the behavior in the promotion-message condition in contrast to the nonfit conditions. Prospective positive feelings associated with the behavior mediated the effect of regulatory fit on intention. The results partly provided support for the regulatory fit concept. Matching print messages to the regulatory focus of individuals seems to be a useful approach to enhance physical activity motivation. Future studies should include an objective measure of physical activity behavior.
Joseph Ray, Jimmy Smith and Brian Fowler
Social media has become a powerful source of sports information. The uncertainty of outcomes of a sporting event is a contributing factor to fan satisfaction, which in turn affects fans’ social-media habits. If teams can determine specific factors that affect these social-media habits, marketing conclusions can be drawn. The current research followed the Twitter accounts of 4 National Hockey League (NHL) teams throughout the 2015 NHL postseason to observe changes in fan engagement. The results displayed increasing growth during each subsequent round of the Stanley Cup playoffs, which indicates an advantageous time to gain fans and develop brand loyalty. The current research showed that retweets and favorites earned on team tweets were shown to have the greatest correlation to followers gained. The growth demonstrated during the postseason provides sports organizations the opportunity to cultivate a strong and loyal following for their teams through strategic marketing initiatives.
Tobias Vogel and Oliver Genschow
Research on regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) suggests that performance increases if instructions fit with sportspersons’ dispositions. Sportspersons who chronically focus on wins (i.e., promotion-oriented individuals) perform best if instructions frame the objective as a promotion goal (e.g., “Try to hit!”). By contrast, sportspersons who chronically focus on losses (i.e., prevention-oriented individuals) perform best if instructions frame the objective as a prevention goal (e.g., “Try not to miss!”). Recent theorizing also suggests that regulatory focus interacts with task difficulty. In an experiment, we assessed soccer performance as a function of chronic focus, instructional focus, and task difficulty. Results support that task difficulty moderates the effects of fit on performance; fitting instructions to match the sportsperson’s chronic regulatory focus improved performance in the easy rather than the difficult task. Findings are discussed regarding the role of regulatory fit in altering subjective pressure during sports performance.
T. Bettina Cornwell, Steffen Jahn, Hu Xie and Wang Suk Suh
). San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass . Freitas , A.L. , & Higgins , E.T. ( 2002 ). Enjoying goal-directed action: The role of regulatory fit . Psychological Science, 13 ( 1 ), 1 – 6 . 10.1111/1467-9280.00401 Funk , D.C. , Filo , K. , Beaton , A.A. , & Pritchard , M. ( 2009 ). Measuring
Daniel M. Smith and Sarah E. Martiny
processes? Evidence using a strength task . Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 35 ( 2 ), 211 – 215 . PubMed ID: 23535978 doi:10.1123/jsep.35.2.211 10.1123/jsep.35.2.211 Chalabaev , A. , Dematte , E. , Sarrazin , P. , & Fontayne , P. ( 2014 ). Creating regulatory fit under stereotype
Steriani Elavsky, Lenka Knapova, Adam Klocek and David Smahel
their orientation IG3: loss-framed SMS with a match to their orientation IG4: loss-framed SMS with a mismatch to their orientation 1 PA: IPAQ (self-reported PA) Gain/loss framing, regulatory fit theory and Higgins´s engagement in goal seeking 4 Significant overall pre/post increase in PA (1,819 ± 2