processing to conscious explicit motor processing has been recognized as “reinvestment” ( Masters, 1992 ; Masters et al., 1993 ). The reinvestment theory was established on the grounds that automatic procedures are interfered with when an individual exerts conscious effort through declarative knowledge to
Shamoon S. Shahzada, Toby C.T. Mak, and Thomson W.L. Wong
Eduardo Bellomo, Andrew Cooke, and James Hardy
-based explanation for choking under pressure is offered by reinvestment theory ( Masters & Maxwell, 2008 ). It contends that contingencies such as increased psychological pressure, social evaluation, and errors during execution may prompt, in some individuals, explicit action monitoring by reinvestment of the
Rob Gray, Anders Orn, and Tim Woodman
(e.g., whether attention turns outward or inward under pressure), few have attempted to compare these theories in terms of the specific motor control mechanisms through which performance breaks down under anxiety. For example, conscious processing ( Baumeister, 1984 ) and reinvestment theories
Neha Malhotra, Jamie M. Poolton, Mark R. Wilson, Liis Uiga, and Rich S.W. Masters
Two experiments examined the roles of the dimensions of movement-specific reinvestment (movement selfconsciousness and conscious motor processing) on performance under demanding conditions. In Experiment 1, novice golfers practiced a golf putting task and were tested under low- and high-anxiety conditions. Conscious motor processing was not associated with putting proficiency or movement variability; however, movement self-consciousness was positively associated with putting proficiency and appeared to be negatively associated with variability of impact velocity in low-anxiety conditions, but not in high-anxiety conditions. Increased anxiety and effort possibly left few attention resources for movement self-consciousness under high anxiety. In Experiment 2, participants performed a quiet standing task in single- and dual-task conditions. Movement self-consciousness was positively associated with performance when attention demands were low (single task) but not when attention demands were high (dual task). The findings provide insight into the differential influence of the two dimensions of movement-specific reinvestment under demanding conditions.
Robin C. Jackson, Kelly J. Ashford, and Glen Norsworthy
Attentional processes governing skilled motor behavior were examined in two studies. In Experiment 1, field hockey players performed a dribbling task under single-task, dual-task, and skill-focused conditions under both low and high pressure situations. In Experiment 2, skilled soccer players performed a dribbling task under single-task, skill-focused, and process-goal conditions, again under low and high pressure situations. Results replicated recent findings regarding the detrimental effect of skill-focused attention and the facilitative effect of dual-task conditions on skilled performance. In addition, focusing on movement related process goals was found to adversely affect performance. Support for the predictive validity of the Reinvestment Scale was also found, with high reinvesters displaying greater susceptibility to skill failure under pressure. Results were consistent with explicit monitoring theories of choking and are further discussed in light of the conceptual distinction between explicit monitoring and reinvestment of conscious control.
Elanor E. Cormack and Jamie Gillman
“reinvestment” and proposed that control of a motor skill is disrupted when working memory manipulates conscious, rule based, explicit knowledge. Subsequent studies show that gathering more technical information in learning does indeed increase the likelihood of breakdown under pressure ( Liao & Masters, 2002
Choking research in sport has suggested that an athlete's tendency to choke, versus give a better than usual (i.e., “clutch”) performance depends on his or her personality, as well as on situational influences, such as a reliance on explicit (versus implicit) knowledge when pressured. The current study integrated these hypotheses and tested a structural equation model (SEM) to predict sport performance under pressure. Two hundred and one participants attempted two sets of 15 basketball free throws, and were videotaped during their second set of shots as a manipulation of pressure. Results of the model suggest that “reinvesting” attention in the task leads to greater anxiety (cognitive and somatic), which then predicts a higher level of self-focus; self-focus, then, did not lead to improved performance under pressure, whereas feelings of self-reported “perceived control” did help performance. Implications for measurement of these constructs, and their relationships with performance, are discussed.
Carolyn E. McEwen, Laura Hurd Clarke, Erica V. Bennett, Kimberley A. Dawson, and Peter R.E. Crocker
) navigating the Olympic team-selection process: expectations, barriers, and tensions; and (c) moving on: reactions, life-goal reinvestment, and athletic-goal adjustment. Pursuing and Expressing Olympic Athlete Identity Here we discuss how the athletes perceived that being an Olympian was a distinct and celebrated
Bert Steenbergen and John van der Kamp
We investigated attentional processes that support the performance of high-skilled soccer players with hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Participants (N = 10) dribbled a slalom course as quickly and accurately as possible under two attentional-focus manipulation conditions. In the task-relevant focus condition, they attended to the foot that was in contact with the ball, whereas in the task-irrelevant focus condition, they monitored a series of words played on a tape. The time taken to complete the slalom course was registered. Performances of individuals with left and right hemiparesis were compared to explore differential effects of hemispheric lesion. The high-skilled players with congenital hemiparesis showed similar attentional-focus effects as those previously reported in the literature for high-skilled players without neurological disorders (Beilock et al., 2002; Ford et al., 2005). Task-relevant focus increased dribbling time, whereas a task-irrelevant focus did not result in a significant change in dribbling time. These findings generalized to each of the five participants with left hemiparesis (i.e., damage to the right hemisphere). By contrast, the effects of a task-relevant focus were less consistent for participants with right hemiparesis (i.e., left-hemisphere damage). This corroborates suggestions that the reinvestment of procedural knowledge is a left-lateralized function. The implications for the training of individuals with congenital brain damage are discussed.
Wing Kai Lam, Jon P. Maxwell, and Richard Masters
The efficacy of analogical instruction, relative to explicit instruction, for the acquisition of a complex motor skill and subsequent performance under pressure was investigated using a modified (seated) basketball shooting task. Differences in attentional resource allocation associated with analogy and explicit learning were also examined using probe reaction times (PRT). Access to task-relevant explicit (declarative) knowledge was assessed. The analogy and explicit learning groups performed equally well during learning and delayed retention tests. The explicit group experienced a drop in performance during a pressured transfer test, relative to their performance during a preceding retention test. However, the analogy group's performance was unaffected by the pressure manipulation. Results from PRTs suggested that both groups allocated equal amounts of attentional resources to the task throughout learning and test trials. Analogy learners had significantly less access to rules about the mechanics of their movements, relative to explicit learners. The results are interpreted in the context of Eysenck and Calvo's (1992) processing efficiency theory and Masters's (1992) theory of reinvestment.