The first purpose of this study was to examine the interrelationships among three forms of relational efficacy within performing dyads, namely, self-efficacy, other-efficacy, and relation-inferred self-efficacy. The second objective was to examine the relationships between these efficacy beliefs and athletes’ perceptions of their commitment to and satisfaction with their current partnership. Participants were 120 junior tennis players (age, M = 14.30 years, SD = 1.21) performing within 60 intact pairs (i.e., doubles). Results revealed that self-efficacy and other-efficacy were predictive of athlete commitment and satisfaction, respectively. In addition, by utilizing actor–partner interdependence models, partner as well as actor effects were evident. The findings illustrate that relational efficacy beliefs may not only have implications for the individual holding such beliefs, but also for his or her relational partner. Implications for the future study of efficacy beliefs within dyadic contexts are discussed.
Ben Jackson, Mark R. Beauchamp and Peter Knapp
Ben Jackson, Nicholas D. Myers, Ian M. Taylor and Mark R. Beauchamp
This study explored the predictive relationships between students’ (N = 516, M age = 18.48, SD = 3.52) tripartite efficacy beliefs and key outcomes in undergraduate physical activity classes. Students reported their relational efficacy perceptions (i.e., other-efficacy and relation-inferred self-efficacy, or RISE) with respect to their instructor before a class, and instruments measuring self-efficacy, enjoyment, and effort were administered separately following the class. The following week, an independent observer assessed student achievement. Latent variable path analyses that accounted for nesting within classes revealed (a) that students were more confident in their own ability when they reported favorable other-efficacy and RISE appraisals, (b) a number of direct and indirect pathways through which other-efficacy and RISE predicted adaptive in-class outcomes, and (c) that self-efficacy directly predicted enjoyment and effort, and indirectly predicted achievement. Although previous studies have examined isolated aspects within the tripartite framework, this represents the first investigation to test the full range of direct and indirect pathways associated with the entire model.
Ben Jackson, Peter Knapp and Mark R. Beauchamp
Drawing from Lent and Lopez’s (2002) “tripartite” model of relational efficacy, the overall purpose of this study was to examine antecedents and consequences of self-effcacy, other-efficacy, and relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE) within six international-level athlete dyads. Semistructured interviews were conducted and data were content analyzed using deductive and inductive procedures. Sources of efficacy emerged in relation to perceptions regarding (i) oneself, (ii) one’s partner, (iii) the dyad/relationship, and (iv) external factors. Results also revealed the emergence of a number of salient intrapersonal and interpersonal outcomes, incorporating cognitive, affective, as well as behavioral consequences. Implications for theory development and future research are considered, and applied propositions are discussed with regard to effective relationship management in elite sport.
Ben Jackson, Peter R. Whipp, K.L. Peter Chua, James A. Dimmock and Martin S. Hagger
Within instructional settings, individuals form relational efficacy appraisals that complement their self-efficacy beliefs. In high school physical education (PE), for instance, students develop a level of confidence in their teacher’s capabilities, as well as estimating how confident they think their teacher is in their (i.e., the students’) ability. Grounded in existing transcontextual work, we examined the motivational pathways through which students’ relational efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs in PE were predictive of their leisure-time physical activity. Singaporean students (N = 990; age M = 13.95, SD = 1.02) completed instruments assessing efficacy beliefs, perceptions of teacher relatedness support, and autonomous motivation toward PE, and 2 weeks later they reported their motivation toward, and engagement in, leisure-time physical activity. Structural equation modeling revealed that students reported stronger other-efficacy and RISE beliefs when they felt that their teacher created a highly relatedness-supportive environment. In turn, their relational efficacy beliefs (a) supported their confidence in their own ability, (b) directly and indirectly predicted more autonomous motives for participation in PE, and (c) displayed prospective transcontextual effects in relation to leisure-time variables. By emphasizing the adaptive motivational effects associated with the tripartite constructs, these findings highlight novel pathways linking students’ efficacy perceptions with leisure-time outcomes.
Ben Jackson, Daniel F. Gucciardi, Chris Lonsdale, Peter R. Whipp and James A. Dimmock
Despite the prevalence of group-/team-based enactment within sport and physical activity settings, to this point the study of relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE) has been focused upon estimations regarding a single target individual (e.g., one’s coach). Accordingly, researchers have not yet considered whether individuals may also form RISE estimations regarding the extent to which the others in their group/team as a whole are confident in their ability. We applied structural equation modeling analyses with cross-sectional and prospective data collected from members of interdependent sport teams (Studies 1 and 2) and undergraduate physical activity classes (Studies 3 and 4), with the purpose of exploring these group-focused RISE inferences. Analyses showed that group-focused RISE perceptions (a) predicted individuals’ confidence in their own ability, (b) were empirically distinct from conceptually related constructs, and (c) directly and/or indirectly predicted a range of downstream outcomes over and above the effects of other efficacy perceptions. Taken together, these findings provide preliminary evidence that individuals’ group-focused RISE appraisals may be important to consider when investigating the network of efficacy perceptions that develops in group-based physical activity contexts.
Cassandra Sparks, Chris Lonsdale, James Dimmock and Ben Jackson
Research grounded in self-determination theory has demonstrated the important role of teachers in shaping students’ physical education experiences. Utilizing a cluster-randomized controlled design, this study aimed to examine whether an interpersonally involving training program based on self-determination theory principles could enhance students’ in-class experiences. With 18 teachers (males = 8, females = 10, M age = 32.75, SD = 8.14) and a final sample of 382 students (males = 155, females = 227, M age = 13.20, SD = 1.66), we implemented linear mixed modeling to investigate the effects on students’ (a) perceived relatedness support and (b) enjoyment of physical education, tripartite efficacy beliefs (i.e., self-efficacy, other-efficacy, relation-inferred self-efficacy), self-determined motivation, and amotivation. Relative to those in the control condition, students in the treatment condition reported positive changes in teacher-provided relatedness support, enjoyment, other-efficacy, and peer-focused relation-inferred self-efficacy. These findings demonstrate support for strategies designed to aid physical education teachers’ relatedness-supportive instructional behaviors.
Brock McMullen, Hester L. Henderson, Donna Harp Ziegenfuss and Maria Newton
’s four principle determinants. The conceptual model of tripartite efficacy illustrates how self-efficacy beliefs develop within a social environment via two relational efficacy constructs: other-efficacy and relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE) . Other-efficacy refers to the beliefs an individual
Wei-Ting Hsu and Min Pan
mediating roles of personal and relational efficacy beliefs . Journal of Health Psychology, 20 , 132 – 143 . PubMed ID: 24058115 doi:10.1177/1359105313500096 10.1177/1359105313500096 Browne , M.W. , & Cudeck , R. ( 1993 ). Alternative ways of assessing model fit . In K.A. Bollen & J.S. Lang
Christine M. Habeeb, Robert C. Eklund and Pete Coffee
, B. , Beauchamp , M.R. , & Knapp , P. ( 2007 ). Relational efficacy beliefs in athlete dyads: An investigation using actor–partner interdependence models . Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29 ( 2 ), 170 – 189 . PubMed ID: 17568065 doi:10.1123/jsep.29.2.170 10.1123/jsep.29
Christine M. Habeeb, Robert C. Eklund and Pete Coffee
. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 59 ( 2 ), 220 – 242 . doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2009.00388.x 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2009.00388.x Jackson , B. , Beauchamp , M.R. , & Knapp , P. ( 2007 ). Relational efficacy beliefs in athlete dyads: An investigation using actor-partner interdependence