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Fran Longstaff and Misia Gervis

This study examined how practitioners who provide sport psychology support use counseling principles and skills to develop practitioner-athlete relationships. Semistructured interviews were conducted with thirteen competent practitioners (Mean age = 41.2 ± 10.9 years old, five men, eight women). Thematic analysis revealed that the participants used a range of counseling principles to develop practitioner-athlete relationships including: the facilitative conditions, self-disclosure, counseling skills, the formation of working alliances, and awareness of the unreal relationship. The participants also described using noncounseling strategies (e.g., gaining an understanding of the athlete’s sporting environment) to build relationships with their athletes. There was considerable variation between the participants both in the training that they had received in counseling principles and skills, and how they applied them. It was concluded that counseling principles and skills play a significant role in the development of practitioner-athlete relationships.

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Sara B. Flory, Rebecca C. Wylie, and Craigory V. Nieman

Table  2 , the 10 highest ranking questions dealt with building trust, relationships, and a sense of community within their PE classes. This was evident as Question 20 ( M  = 97.42; SD  = 6.39) specifically stated “Develop a personal relationship with my students” and Question 9 ( M  = 95.4; SD  = 10

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Philippe Crisp

coaches to ensure the personal growth and empowerment of participants, gain traction. In total, both take into consideration a variety of social factors and accentuate a philosophy of delivering coaching practice that emphasizes relationship development. A key influence here is the work of Coalter ( 2013

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Christie M. Kleinmann

public relations fostered real relationships, but we confused a retweet or comment with conversation. We mislabeled game-day engagement as a relationship, and we mistook the superficial for an authentic connection. In our defense, this was all we had ever known. We were accustomed to a steady stream of

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Raouf Hammami, Anis Chaouachi, Issam Makhlouf, Urs Granacher, and David G. Behm

Balance, strength and power relationships may contain important information at various maturational stages to determine training priorities.


The objective was to examine maturity-specific relationships of static/dynamic balance with strength and power measures in young male athletes.


Soccer players (N = 130) aged 10–16 were assessed with the Stork and Y balance (YBT) tests. Strength/power measures included back extensor muscle strength, standing long jump (SLJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and 3-hop jump tests. Associations between balance with strength/power variables were calculated according to peak-height-velocity (PHV).


There were significant medium-large sized correlations between all balance measures with back extensor strength (r = .486–.791) and large associations with power (r = .511–.827). These correlation coefficients were significantly different between pre-PHV and circa PHV as well as pre-PHV and post-PHV with larger associations in the more mature groups. Irrespective of maturity-status, SLJ was the best strength/power predictor with the highest proportion of variance (12–47%) for balance (i.e., Stork eyes opened) and the YBT was the best balance predictor with the highest proportion of variance (43–78%) for all strength/power variables.


The associations between balance and muscle strength/power measures in youth athletes that increase with maturity may imply transfer effects from balance to strength/power training and vice versa in youth athletes.

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Heath McDonald, Rui Biscaia, Masayuki Yoshida, Jodie Conduit, and Jason P. Doyle

sport. At the heart of sport marketing activities is the activation, enhancement, and leverage of customer/fan interactions to cultivate relationships with sport organizations, making customer/fan engagement an important concept both theoretically and managerially ( Funk & James, 2006 ). With the

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Louise Davis and Sophia Jowett

The present preliminary study aimed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a new sport-specific self-report instrument designed to assess athletes’ and coaches’ attachment styles. The development and initial validation comprised three main phases. In Phase 1, a pool of items was generated based on pre-existing self-report attachment instruments, modified to reflect a coach and an athlete’s style of attachment. In Phase 2, the content validity of the items was assessed by a panel of experts. A final scale was developed and administered to 405 coaches and 298 athletes (N = 703 participants). In Phase 3, confirmatory factor analysis of the obtained data was conducted to determine the final items of the Coach-Athlete Attachment Scale (CAAS). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed acceptable goodness of ft indexes for a 3-first order factor model as well as a 2-first order factor model for both the athlete and the coach data, respectively. A secure attachment style positively predicted relationship satisfaction, while an insecure attachment style was a negative predictor of relationship satisfaction. The CAAS revealed initial psychometric properties of content, factorial, and predictive validity, as well as reliability.

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Marlene A. Dixon

relationships themselves. Ultimately, learning is complex and requires people to face different challenges at the individual level, which also depends on the societal and cultural norms associated with their environment ( Regmi, 2020 ). It may look like a new job, a different aspect of a job, teaching a new

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Hassan Gharayagh Zandi, Sahar Zarei, Mohammad Ali Besharat, Davoud Houminiyan sharif abadi, and Ahmad Bagher Zadeh

a key component to these relationships ( Hook, Worthington, Utsey, Davis, & Burnette, 2012 ). The ability to forgive is also an important component in leadership ( Davidhizar & Laurent, 2000 ). Forgiveness can be a motivational transformation that helps managers inhibit relationship

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Jeffrey B. Ruser, Mariya A. Yukhymenko-Lescroart, Jenelle N. Gilbert, Wade Gilbert, and Stephanie D. Moore

-discipline, greater life satisfaction, connection to others, and positive relationships ( Wood, Froh, & Geraghty, 2010 ). Gratitude is defined as “the recognition that one is the beneficiary of another’s kind act” ( Lambert, Graham, & Fincham, 2009 , p. 1194). Drawing upon this significance, researchers have begun to