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Timothy J.H. Lathlean, Paul B. Gastin, Stuart V. Newstead and Caroline F. Finch

, objective/physiological through heart rate or subjective/psychological through rating of perceived exertion [RPE]). Furthermore, these measures can then be calculated to represent absolute load (eg, 1-wk load) or relative load (eg, acute:chronic workload ratio). Research of AFL players has investigated load and injury through

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David Rodríguez-Osorio, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok and Fernando Pareja-Blanco

involving several relative loads on soccer players’ physical performance. We hypothesized that resisted COD training would lead to superior improvement at COD, sprint, and jump performance in comparison with unresisted COD training. Methods Participants Fifty-four male soccer players (anthropometric

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Francisco Luis Pestaña-Melero, G. Gregory Haff, Francisco Javier Rojas, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla and Amador García-Ramos

, 10 – 12 The use of movement velocity to predict relative load is justified by the strong relationship that has been observed between mean velocity and %1RM in both upper and lower body exercises performed in a Smith machine. 10 , 13 However, the reliability of mean velocity to predict the 1RM could

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Jeffrey M. McBride, Tony R. Larkin, Andrea M. Dayne, Tracie L. Haines and Tyler J. Kirby


The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of stable and unstable conditions on one repetition maximum strength and muscle activity during dynamic squatting using absolute and relative loading.


Ten recreationally weight-trained males participated in this study (age = 24.1 ± 2.0 y, height = 178.0 ± 5.6 cm, body mass = 83.7 ± 13.4 kg, 1RM/body mass = 1.53 ± 0.31), which involved two laboratory sessions separated by 1 wk. Linear position transducers were used to track bar displacement while subjects stood on a force plate for all trials. Vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF) and erector spinae (L1) muscle activity (average integrated EMG [IEMG]) was also recorded during all trials. During the frst session subjects complete a one repetition maximum test in a stable dynamic squat (S1RM = 128.0 ± 31.4 kg) and an unstable dynamic squat (U1RM = 83.8 ± 17.3 kg) in a randomized order with a 30-min rest period between conditions. The second session consisted of the performance of three trials each for 12 different conditions (unstable and stable squats using three different absolute loads [six conditions] and unstable and stable squats using three different relative loads [six conditions]).


Results revealed a statistically significant difference between S1RM and U1RM values (P < .05). The stable trials resulted in the same or a significantly higher value for VL, BF and L1 muscle activity in comparison with the unstable trials for all twelve conditions.


Unstable squatting is of equal or less (depending on the loading condition) benefit to improving or maximizing muscle activity during resistance exercise.

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Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Daniel Jerez-Mayorga, Dario Martínez-García, Ángela Rodríguez-Perea, Luis J. Chirosa-Ríos and Amador García-Ramos

grip width in comparison with the use of a self-selected grip width. In contrast, when the same relative loads are compared, Lockie et al 19 did not found significant differences in the load–power relationship between a close and self-selected grip width. It has also been shown that a narrow grip

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Miguel Sánchez-Moreno, David Rodríguez-Rosell, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Ricardo Mora-Custodio and Juan José González-Badillo

because it affects neuromuscular responses and subsequent adaptations. 2 , 8 Typically, training volume is prescribed using a specific number of repetitions in each exercise set for all subjects. However, the maximal number of repetitions that can be completed against a given relative load (%1RM) shows a

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Aitor Iturricastillo, Cristina Granados, Raúl Reina, José Manuel Sarabia, Ander Romarate and Javier Yanci

. The association among BP performance, acceleration, RSA, and CODA could provide information to use BP exercise to improve field performance. Therefore, the aims of this study were (1) to analyze the relationship between MPV and relative load %1RM in the BP exercise to assess the possibility of using

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Amador García-Ramos, Alejandro Torrejón, Belén Feriche, Antonio J. Morales-Artacho, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Paulino Padial and Guy Gregory Haff

velocity (MV) of the barbell recorded by a linear velocity transducer and the relative load (%1RM) in multijoint machine-based resistance exercises involving both upper- and lower-body muscles. 9 – 13 This strong relationship suggests that exercise intensity can be prescribed on a daily basis by adjusting

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Harry G. Banyard, James J. Tufano, Jonathon J.S. Weakley, Sam Wu, Ivan Jukic and Kazunori Nosaka

were also used to familiarize the participants with maximal concentric velocity effort across the relative load spectrum (20%1RM–100%1RM). LVP Assessment Previous research has found that MV in the free-weight back squat is reliable at 20%1RM, 40%1RM, 60%1RM, 80%1RM, and 90%1RM, but not at 100%1RM. 12

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Kym J. Williams, Dale W. Chapman, Elissa J. Phillips and Nick Ball

checked for normal distribution and outliers. A 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to determine whether there was a significant interaction between system or joint power and relative load within each sport, whereas a Bonferroni post hoc analysis was implemented to identify where the