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Timothy J.H. Lathlean, Paul B. Gastin, Stuart V. Newstead, and Caroline F. Finch

, objective/physiological through heart rate or subjective/psychological through rating of perceived exertion [RPE]). Furthermore, these measures can then be calculated to represent absolute load (eg, 1-wk load) or relative load (eg, acute:chronic workload ratio). Research of AFL players has investigated load and injury through

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David Rodríguez-Osorio, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, and Fernando Pareja-Blanco

involving several relative loads on soccer players’ physical performance. We hypothesized that resisted COD training would lead to superior improvement at COD, sprint, and jump performance in comparison with unresisted COD training. Methods Participants Fifty-four male soccer players (anthropometric

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Jeffrey M. McBride, Tony R. Larkin, Andrea M. Dayne, Tracie L. Haines, and Tyler J. Kirby


The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of stable and unstable conditions on one repetition maximum strength and muscle activity during dynamic squatting using absolute and relative loading.


Ten recreationally weight-trained males participated in this study (age = 24.1 ± 2.0 y, height = 178.0 ± 5.6 cm, body mass = 83.7 ± 13.4 kg, 1RM/body mass = 1.53 ± 0.31), which involved two laboratory sessions separated by 1 wk. Linear position transducers were used to track bar displacement while subjects stood on a force plate for all trials. Vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF) and erector spinae (L1) muscle activity (average integrated EMG [IEMG]) was also recorded during all trials. During the frst session subjects complete a one repetition maximum test in a stable dynamic squat (S1RM = 128.0 ± 31.4 kg) and an unstable dynamic squat (U1RM = 83.8 ± 17.3 kg) in a randomized order with a 30-min rest period between conditions. The second session consisted of the performance of three trials each for 12 different conditions (unstable and stable squats using three different absolute loads [six conditions] and unstable and stable squats using three different relative loads [six conditions]).


Results revealed a statistically significant difference between S1RM and U1RM values (P < .05). The stable trials resulted in the same or a significantly higher value for VL, BF and L1 muscle activity in comparison with the unstable trials for all twelve conditions.


Unstable squatting is of equal or less (depending on the loading condition) benefit to improving or maximizing muscle activity during resistance exercise.

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Bret Contreras, Andrew D. Vigotsky, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Chris Beardsley, and John Cronin

Front, full, and parallel squats are some of the most popular squat variations. The purpose of this investigation was to compare mean and peak electromyography (EMG) amplitude of the upper gluteus maximus, lower gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis of front, full, and parallel squats. Thirteen healthy women (age = 28.9 ± 5.1 y; height = 164 ± 6.3 cm; body mass = 58.2 ± 6.4 kg) performed 10 repetitions of their estimated 10-repetition maximum of each respective variation. There were no statistical (P = .05) differences between full, front, and parallel squats in any of the tested muscles. Given these findings, it can be concluded that the front, full, or parallel squat can be performed for similar EMG amplitudes. However, given the results of previous research, it is recommended that individuals use a full range of motion when squatting, assuming full range can be safely achieved, to promote more favorable training adaptations. Furthermore, despite requiring lighter loads, the front squat may provide a similar training stimulus to the back squat.

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Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Daniel Jerez-Mayorga, Dario Martínez-García, Ángela Rodríguez-Perea, Luis J. Chirosa-Ríos, and Amador García-Ramos

grip width in comparison with the use of a self-selected grip width. In contrast, when the same relative loads are compared, Lockie et al 19 did not found significant differences in the load–power relationship between a close and self-selected grip width. It has also been shown that a narrow grip

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Miguel Sánchez-Moreno, Gonçalo Rendeiro-Pinho, Pedro V. Mil-Homens, and Fernando Pareja-Blanco

maximal number of repetitions (MNR) that can be completed against a given relative load (percentage of 1-repetition maximum [%1RM]) exhibits large variability (coefficient of variation [CV] ∼ 20%) between individuals. 7 – 10 This may lead to different levels of effort (ie, the relationship between the

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Steve W. Thompson, David Rogerson, Alan Ruddock, Harry G. Banyard, and Andrew Barnes

, therefore, may be smaller than the margin for error in the back squat, and it is proposed that heavier relative loads are likely to be performed at faster velocities and in smaller increments. Importantly, limited research is available that fully assesses LVPs in the power clean. Naclerio and Larumbe

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Francisco Luis Pestaña-Melero, G. Gregory Haff, Francisco Javier Rojas, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, and Amador García-Ramos

, 10 – 12 The use of movement velocity to predict relative load is justified by the strong relationship that has been observed between mean velocity and %1RM in both upper and lower body exercises performed in a Smith machine. 10 , 13 However, the reliability of mean velocity to predict the 1RM could

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Miguel Sánchez-Moreno, David Rodríguez-Rosell, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Ricardo Mora-Custodio, and Juan José González-Badillo

because it affects neuromuscular responses and subsequent adaptations. 2 , 8 Typically, training volume is prescribed using a specific number of repetitions in each exercise set for all subjects. However, the maximal number of repetitions that can be completed against a given relative load (%1RM) shows a

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Aitor Iturricastillo, Cristina Granados, Raúl Reina, José Manuel Sarabia, Ander Romarate, and Javier Yanci

. The association among BP performance, acceleration, RSA, and CODA could provide information to use BP exercise to improve field performance. Therefore, the aims of this study were (1) to analyze the relationship between MPV and relative load %1RM in the BP exercise to assess the possibility of using