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Peter J. Worthington, Mark A. King, and Craig A. Ranson

The aim of this study was to identify the key aspects of technique that characterize the fastest bowlers. Kinematic data were collected for 20 elite male fast bowlers with 11 kinematic parameters calculated, describing elements of fast bowling technique that have previously been linked to ball release speed. Four technique variables were identified as being the best predictors of ball release speed, explaining 74% of the observed variation in ball release speed. The results indicate that the fastest bowlers have a quicker run-up and maintain a straighter knee throughout the front foot contact phase. The fastest bowlers were also observed to exhibit larger amounts of upper trunk flexion up to ball release and to delay the onset of arm circumduction. This study identifies those technique variables that best explain the differences in release speeds among fast bowlers. These results are likely to be useful in both the coaching and talent identification of fast bowlers.

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Sangwoo Lee, Ronald Davis, Lawrence W. Judge, Young-Hoo Kwon, Kihoon Han, Jemin Kim, Jaewoong Kim, and Jaehwa Kim

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among release factors (speed, height, and angle) and distance thrown in Paralympic seated shot put. Fortyeight trials performed by 11 men and 5 women during the 2012 US Paralympic trials in track and field were analyzed. With both genders combined, release speed (r = .95, p < .01) and angle (r = .51, p < .01) showed significant correlations to distance thrown. Release speed (r = .94, p < .01) in men and all release factors (r = .60–.98, p < .02) in women showed significant correlations to distance. Release speed and angle were identified as important predictors of the distance, explaining over 89–96% of the variance in distance thrown. Unlike athletes without disability, seated shotputters exhibited significant positive speed–angle correlations (combined: r = .37, p < .01; women: r = .57, p = .03). Application of these results should address a focus in training on generating speed through the release point with a consistent release angle.

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Simon A. Feros, Warren B. Young, and Brendan J. O’Brien

height of 1.95 m and an angle of 25° to capture point of release. Cosine effect error in ball-release speed was corrected for in a purpose-made spreadsheet by dividing measured speed by 0.906 (ie, cosine of 25°). From this datum, 3 values were calculated: peak ball-release speed, the mean of all 4

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Simon A. Feros, Damon A. Bednarski, and Peter J. Kremer

In cricket, pace bowlers form the majority of the “bowling attack,” with their main role to dismiss batters and limit runs scored with speed, accuracy, and consistency. 1 Pace bowlers can be categorized by ball release speed as express, fast, fast-medium, and slow-medium. 2 Unfortunately, injury

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Ryan T. Letter, Dan B. Dwyer, Eric J. Drinkwater, and Simon A. Feros

the most important qualities of a pace bowler is the speed at which the ball is released. 3 Ball release speed is often considered an important determinant of successful pace bowling performance, with faster pace bowlers displaying greater pace bowling performance than slower pace bowlers. 4 From a

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Roger Bartlett, Erich Müller, Stefan Lindinger, Fritz Brunner, and Calvin Morriss

This study compared three-dimensional release parameters and important features of the throwing technique for male javelin throwers of three different skill levels (elite, club, novice), recorded using three-dimensional cine or video. As expected, significant differences (p < .01) in throw distances and release speeds were found between all three groups. The only other release parameter for which a significant difference was found (between club and novice groups) was the yaw angle. The increase in release speed with increasing skill across the groups may be attributable in part to greater run-up speeds. Also important were significantly greater peak speeds of the throwing shoulder, elbow, and hand during the delivery stride for the elite group compared to the other groups. Significantly longer acceleration paths at the start of the delivery stride and a delay in elbow flexion until after final foot strike for the elite throwers were also important in generating greater release speeds.

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Herbert Wagner, Michael Buchecker, Serge P. von Duvillard, and Erich Müller

Purpose:

The aims of the present study were: (1) to compare the differences in the ball release speed and throwing accuracy between the ABOVE and SIDE throw; (2) to analyze kinematic differences of these two throwing techniques; and (3) to give practical applications to team handball coaches and players.

Methods:

Ball release speed, throwing accuracy, and kinematics were measured via the Vicon MX 13 (Vicon Peak, Oxford, UK) from 12 male elite right-handed team handball players.

Results:

Results of our study suggest that the two throwing techniques differ significantly (P < .0073) in the angles and/or angular velocities of the trunk (flexion, left tilt and rotation) and shoulder (flexion and abduction) of the throwing arm that result in a significantly different ball release speed (1.4 ± 0.8 m/s; P < .001) and that throwing accuracy was not significantly different.

Conclusion:

Our results indicated that the different position of the hand at ball release of the ABOVE and SIDE throws is primarily caused by different trunk flexion and tilt angles that lead to differences in ball release speed but not in throwing accuracy, and that the participants try to move their throwing arm similarly in both throwing techniques.

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Shinji Sakurai, Bruce Elliott, and J. Robert Grove

Three-dimensional (3-D) high speed photography was used to record the overarm throwing actions of five open-age, four 18-year-old, six 16-year- old, and six 14-year-old high-performance baseball catchers. The direct linear transformation method was used for 3-D space reconstruction from 2-D images of the catchers throwing from home plate to second base recorded using two phase-locked cameras operating at a nominal rate of 200 Hz. Selected physical capacity measures were also recorded and correlated with ball release speed. In general, anthropometric and strength measures significantly increased through the 14-year-old to open-age classifications, while a range of correlation coefficients from .50 to .84 was recorded between these physical capacities and ball speed at release. While many aspects of the kinematic data at release were similar, the key factors of release angle and release speed varied for the different age groups.

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William C. Whiting, Robert J. Gregor, and Marie Halushka

Eight male javelin throwers were filmed while throwing new-rules javelins during competition at five meets over a 2-year period. Body segment kinematics and javelin release parameters were assessed relative to their contribution to throwing performance. The data suggest that successful throws, as judged by distance thrown, are characterized by higher release speeds, longer last-step lengths, less flexion of the front-leg knee during the final plant phase, and an orderly progression of peak speeds at the hip, shoulder, and elbow from the onset of double leg support until release. Individual variability in performance was associated with differences measured between several throwing variables. Limitations inherent to two-dimensional analysis were identified that highlighted the need for three-dimensional investigation of the javelin throw.

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Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey, Daniel Butterworth, and Calvin Morriss

Three-dimensional kinematic data were obtained from 15 male wheelchair basketball players performing a successful free throw. Players were divided into two groups, according to their International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) classification (Group 1: 2-2.5 point players and Group 2: 4-4.5 point players). The angle of release of the ball was 58 for both groups. Group 2 released the ball from a significantly greater height than Group 1 (1.57 – 0.12m v 1.78 – 0.17m; p < .05). Although nonsignificant, the following trends were found: Group 1 showed greater ball release speeds and generated greater angular velocity of the wrist at release while Group 2 generated greater shoulder flexion angular velocity at release. In conclusion, players from different IWBF classes tend to rely on different kinematic strategies to produce successful release conditions.