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Aisha Chen, Sandhya Selvaraj, Vennila Krishnan and Shadnaz Asgari

reliability analysis, in a recent study, Sousa et al 5 have tested the reliability of 2 algorithms—one employing 2 SDs of COP displacement from the baseline to detect the onset and the other one using 5% of the first peak of COP displacement as the threshold to obtain the onset. The result of this study

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Matti Hyvärinen, Sarianna Sipilä, Janne Kulmala, Harto Hakonen, Tuija H. Tammelin, Urho M. Kujala, Vuokko Kovanen and Eija K. Laakkonen

including the tests for 6-min walk distance, knee extension force, vertical jump height, and grip strength. In addition, a test–retest reliability analysis was performed. Methods Cohort Description Cross-sectional baseline data of the Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis study were analyzed. The study

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Dawn T. Gulick

Mobil-Aider ™ and Zeiss measures. This resulted in all measures being blinded. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson correlations were performed to determine how strongly the measures of the 2 devices resemble each other. A Cronbach alpha reliability analysis was performed to measure internal

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Florence Guérin, Herbert W. Marsh and Jean-Pierre Famose

Two studies tested the generalizability of support for within- and between-construct validity based on responses to a French translation of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) by high school students. The PSDQ is a multidimensional physical self-concept instrument designed to measure 11 components: health, coordination, physical activity, body fat, sports competence, global physical, appearance, strength, flexibility, endurance, and esteem. In the first study (N = 752), preliminary reliability analysis revealed strong internal consistency and overall stability. Confirmatory factor analysis provided support for structural equivalence with the original instrument. In the second study (N = 288), PSDQ factors were related to 13 external criteria of physical fitness; each was predicted a priori to be most highly correlated with one of the PSDQ scales. Bivariate correlations and CFA models supported both the convergent and discriminant validity of the PSDQ responses. These overall results demonstrated good support for the generalizability of the PSDQ with French adolescents.

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Roberta Bgeginski, Diogo A. DeSousa, Bruna M. Barroso, Janete Vettorazzi, Michelle F. Mottola, Felipe B. Schuch and José Geraldo L. Ramos


The Physical Activity Readiness Medical Examination (PARmed-X) for Pregnancy aims to facilitate the communication between the health care provider, the fitness professional and the pregnant woman. The purpose of the current study was to test the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the PARmed-X for Pregnancy.


Reliability and validity of psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the PARmed-X for Pregnancy were tested in 107 women recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Participants completed the first page of the instrument twice with a minimal interval of 1 week for test-retest reliability analysis. The absolute and relative contraindications to exercise on page 2 of the document were completed by the obstetrician.


Results indicated good evidence of construct validity. The isolated items in the PARmed-X document presented a large heterogeneity in kappa coefficients ranging from very low estimates to perfect estimates. The overall indication of prescription of physical activity, nonetheless, presented a good kappa coefficient of 0.749.


The Brazilian Portuguese version of the PARmed-X for Pregnancy can be applied as a valid tool for medical screening by health care providers to help inform safe exercise prescription during pregnancy.

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Brendan Dwyer, Gregory P. Greenhalgh and Carrie W. LeCrom

Brand evangelism, an advanced form of marketing where consumers voluntarily advocate on behalf of the brand, can bring numerous benefits to a firm. Pro-brand behaviors such as word-of-mouth promotion, recruitment of consumers, and disparagement of rivals are just a few of the many actions associated with brand evangelism. With highly impassioned and provocative fans, an opportunity exists to explore brand evangelism within the spectator sport context. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a scale to measure sport team (brand) evangelism. Guided by Fournier’s (1998) brand extension of relationship theory and following Churchill’s (1979) eight-step method for developing marketing measures, two focus groups of fans were interviewed and an additional 450 sport fans were surveyed through two distinct data collections in an attempt to identify sport team evangelistic behaviors, and test a measure of such behaviors. The assessment of the instrument included two forms of reliability analysis and three modes of validity analysis as the scale was parsimoniously reduced from 88 initial behaviors to four factors and 14 items.

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Simon A. Rogers, Peter Hassmén, Alexandra H. Roberts, Alison Alcock, Wendy L. Gilleard and John S. Warmenhoven

Purpose: A novel 4-task Athlete Introductory Movement Screen was developed and tested to provide an appropriate and reliable movement screening tool for youth sport practitioners. Methods: The overhead squat, lunge, push-up, and a prone brace with shoulder touches were selected based on previous assessments. A total of 28 mixed-sport junior athletes (18 boys and 10 girls; mean age = 15.7 [1.8] y) completed screening after viewing standardized demonstration videos. Athletes were filmed performing 8 repetitions of each task and assessed retrospectively by 2 independent raters using a 3-point scale. The primary rater reassessed the footage 3 weeks later. A subgroup (n = 11) repeated the screening 7 days later, and a further 8 athletes were reassessed 6 months later. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), typical error (TE), coefficient of variation (CV%), and weighted kappa (k) were used in reliability analysis. Results: For the Athlete Introductory Movement Screen 4-task sum score, intrarater reliability was high (ICC = .97; CV = 2.8%), whereas interrater reliability was good (intraclass correlation coefficient = .88; CV = 5.6%). There was a range of agreement from fair to almost perfect (k = .31–.89) between raters across individual movements. A 7-day and 6-month test–retest held good reliability and acceptable CVs (≤ 10%) for sum scores. Conclusion: The 4-task Athlete Introductory Movement Screen appears to be a reliable tool for profiling emerging athletes. Reliability was strongest within the same rater; it was lower, yet acceptable, between 2 raters. Scores can provide an overview of appropriate movement competencies, helping practitioners assess training interventions in the athlete development pathway.

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Caroline Ruschel, Alessandro Haupenthal, Gabriel Fernandes Jacomel, Heiliane de Brito Fontana, Daniela Pacheco dos Santos, Robson Dias Scoz and Helio Roesler

Context: Isometric muscle strength of knee extensors has been assessed for estimating performance, evaluating progress during physical training, and investigating the relationship between isometric and dynamic/functional performance. Objective: To assess the validity and reliability of an adapted leg-extension machine for measuring isometric knee extensor force. Design: Validity (concurrent approach) and reliability (test and test-retest approach) study. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: 70 healthy men and women aged between 20 and 30 y (39 in the validity study and 31 in the reliability study). Main Outcome Measures: Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values calculated for the maximum voluntary isometric torque of knee extensors at 30°, 60°, and 90°, measured with the prototype and with an isokinetic dynamometer (ICC2,1, validity study) and measured with the prototype in test and retest sessions, scheduled from 48 h to 72 h apart (ICC1,1, reliability study). Results: In the validity analysis, the prototype showed good agreement for measurements at 30° (ICC2,1 = .75, SEM = 18.2 Nm) and excellent agreement for measurements at 60° (ICC2,1 = .93, SEM = 9.6 Nm) and at 90° (ICC2,1 = .94, SEM = 8.9 Nm). Regarding the reliability analysis, between-days' ICC1,1 were good to excellent, ranging from .88 to .93. Standard error of measurement and minimal detectable difference based on test-retest ranged from 11.7 Nm to 18.1 Nm and 32.5 Nm to 50.1 Nm, respectively, for the 3 analyzed knee angles. Conclusions: The analysis of validity and repeatability of the prototype for measuring isometric muscle strength has shown to be good or excellent, depending on the knee joint angle analyzed. The new instrument, which presents a relative low cost and easiness of transportation when compared with an isokinetic dynamometer, is valid and provides consistent data concerning isometric strength of knee extensors and, for this reason, can be used for practical, clinical, and research purposes.

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Doris Bolt, René Giger, Stefan Wirth and Jaap Swanenburg

participate the second testing day, therefore were not utilized in the reliability analysis. No significant differences were found comparing leg dominance ( P  = 0.45–0.88). Therefore, the mean of both tests (dominant and nondominant) were used for calculation. The majority of the TTS data is normally

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Damir Zubac, Drazen Cular and Uros Marusic

–8 10.6 ± 3.3 8–12 Muscle mass (kg) 37.7 ± 3.0* 34–41 49.5 ± 4.5 42–55 Sum of 6 skinfolds (mm) 38.3 ± 4.3* 33–44 56.1 ± 12.8 43–79 Experience (y) 7.1 ± 1.2 6–8 7.0 ± 1.1 6–8 *Different from heavyweight ( P  < .05). Reliability analysis showed low ICCs for U SG (ICC = .52–.54) and U OSM (ICC = .38