Sport concussion has been thrust into the national spotlight with growing concern over both the acute and chronic risk for injury. While much has been learned and applied to medical practice in the previous decade, how the injury may affect individuals years later remains largely unknown. The opaqueness of the unknown has led some to ask if certain sports should be banned. Without immediate answers, what is currently known must be extrapolated and the risks and benefits of sport participation must be balanced.
Steven P. Broglio
Jason P. Shurley and Janice S. Todd
In recent years there has been a significant increase in the scrutiny of head trauma in football. This attention is due largely to a host of studies that have been highly publicized and linked the repetitive head trauma in football to late-life neurological impairment. Scientists and physicians familiar with boxing have been aware of such impairment, resulting from repeated head impacts, for more than 80 years. Few, however, made the connection between the similarity of head impacts in boxing and football until recent decades. This article examines the medical and scientific literature related to head trauma in both boxing and football, paying particular attention to the different emphases of that research. Further, the literature is used to trace the understanding of sport-related chronic head trauma as well as how that understanding has prompted reform efforts in each sport. Finally, in light of the current understanding of the long-term sequelae of repetitive head trauma, some consideration is given to what football administrators can learn from the reform efforts in boxing.
Eric Schussler, Ryan S. McCann, Nicholas Reilly, Thomas R. Campbell, and Jessica C. Martinez
are well understood 1 ; however, the effects of repeated subconcussive impacts on balance have not been fully elucidated. The number and severity of concussive injuries has been linked to a number of functional issues throughout the life span. 2 Repeated head impacts have been indicated to lead to a
John M. Rosene, Christian Merritt, Nick R. Wirth, and Daniel Nguyen
. 15 As a helmeted sport where body contact is legal, men’s lacrosse players are exposed to repeated subconcussive impacts to the head. The potential implications resulting from these head impacts in men’s lacrosse remains undetermined, yet repeated head impacts have been reported to lead to
Enora Le Flao, Andrew W. Pichardo, Sherwin Ganpatt, and Dustin J. Oranchuk
especially apparent in adolescence when concussions are more likely 3 and more debilitating during these developmental years. 4 Recently, the repeated head impacts from heading soccer balls have received much attention and led to policy change. In 2015, US Soccer eliminated the heading of soccer balls for
Derek G. Shendell, Tracy A. Listwan, Lauren Gonzalez, and Joseph Panchella
encephalopathy, a neurodegenerative disease linked to concussions and repeated head impacts. 3 Concussions and associated adverse health effects, however, are neither proprietary concerns of the NFL nor relegated solely to professional and collegiate athletics. 4 , 5 There is an increasing concern about