.05% proportion of solely loyal buyers, compared with market laggard Bud (0.81% market share) with 8.79% solely loyal buyers ( Bassi, 2011 ). Third, a brand’s customers, on average, buy other brands more often. This is because most customers buy from a repertoire of brands. This generalization is evident within
Hunter Fujak, Stephen Frawley, Heath McDonald and Stephen Bush
Ana F. Silva, Pedro Figueiredo, Sara Morais, João P. Vilas-Boas, Ricardo J. Fernandes and Ludovic Seifert
relevance of training around a swimmer’s preferred stroke frequency to enlarge his/her behavioral flexibility. We hypothesized that high behavioral flexibility might correspond to (a) a great repertoire of upper-limb coordination patterns, allowing swimmers to switch between coordination patterns, and (b
develop four cases to illustrate in detail how to deal with the question of cultural variations in motor behavior. The first example explores the movement repertoire of expert potters from two cultural backgrounds when asked to produce pots of the same shape. In a second example we analyze how a dance
Brent S. Rnshall and Kenneth C. Smith
Experimental procedures were implemented in a competitive swimming training situation in order to change the repertoire, quality, and quantity of several behavior categories in a coach. A multiple baseline design was used for scientific verification. Self-recording techniques were instituted for rewarding, providing feedback, and providing feedback after first having rewarded a swimmer. The repertoire of behaviors in these categories was increased through the provision of discriminative stimuli on self-recording sheets. Fading schedules were successfully used to reduce the subject's reliance on the prompt sheets. Rates of occurrence of the target behaviors served as a reinforcing procedure for increasing the emission frequencies. A leaning of reinforcement produced a persistent change in the scope and quantity of the behaviors. Pre- and postexperimental behavior analyses using the Coach Observation Schedule indicated that the affected changes also produced concomitant changes in other behavioral categories.
Siobhain McArdle and Phil Moore
This article highlights four key principles of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and proposes situations where these tenets would be relevant from an applied sport psychology perspective. To achieve this aim, a case study of an athlete with a dysfunctional perfectionist mindset is employed. We conclude with possible research directions in applied sport psychology informed by CBT. These recommendations include the need to further develop an evidence based formulation system and the relevance of building a repertoire of “evidence-based” behavioral experiments to improve practice.
Melinda A. Solmon and Amelia M. Lee
This study explored the cognitive responses of adapted physical education teachers during lesson planning. The focus was to determine whether expert (n=4) and novice (n=4) teachers varying in experience and expertise differ in the information they need to plan a lesson and how they conceptualize a lesson. Subjects were given information about a fictional class of handicapped students and were asked to plan a lesson. After writing a lesson plan, they were asked to explain it to the experimenter. The results provided clear evidence of the experienced teachers’ superior knowledge base and repertoire of teaching strategies. Their responses were filled with contingency plans based on the actions and abilities exhibited by the students. In contrast, the novices generated plans that were unidirectional and failed to accommodate the range of ability levels in the class.
Trisha Leahy and Rachel Harrigan
Narrative therapy is a form of therapeutic intervention underpinned by a philosophy of language proposing that meaning is socially constructed through language. Power relations and social and personal contexts are understood as central to the construction of meaning. Narrative therapy represents an approach to therapeutic practice that assumes that people experience problems in their lives when the dominant stories, which they or others have constructed of their lives, do not sufficiently represent their lived experience. In this article we provide an exposition of narrative therapy, its philosophical influences and key processes. We demonstrate key tenets in action via a psychoeducational intervention attempting to facilitate positive body image with a team of 15 elite young women athletes. Anonymous, written, evaluative feedback of the seven-session program suggests a generally positive outcome. Narrative therapy can be a useful addition to the repertoire of clinical skills of sport psychologists.
Alexander W. McNeill and Richard Mulholland Jr.
This study evaluated the effects of latency periods on the retention of gross motor skills in three profoundly retarded, multiply handicapped children, and the efficacy of a relearning model as a test of learning among these children. The study used a quasi-experimental, multiple baseline-across-subjects design. The subjects were taught a motor skill designed specifically to their abilities; the skill was retaught following latency periods of 90, 30, and 14 days during which time the skill was not practiced. Based upon the results of this study, it was concluded that the subjects had some ability to retrieve motor programs and that some feedback process operated to refine the motor program. It was determined that the number of trials required to achieve a criterion is dependent upon the latency interval, with a 14-day interval having no effect upon achievement of criterion. These findings are used to support an argument for intermittent programming for the retention of motor skills in profoundly retarded, multiply handicapped children, thereby helping them to maintain and expand their repertoire of behaviors.
Joshua Haworth, Anastasia Kyvelidou, Wayne Fisher and Nicholas Stergiou
Children with autism spectrum disorder tend to have little interest in the presence, actions, and motives of other persons. In addition, these children tend to present with a limited and overly redundant movement repertoire, often expressing hyperfixation and aversion to novelty. We explore whether this is related to a more fundamental lack of appreciation for various temporal dynamics, including periodic, chaotic, and aperiodic motion structures. Seven children with ASD (age, gender, and height matched with children without ASD) were asked to stand and watch the motion of a visual stimulus displayed on a large (55") video monitor. Gaze and posture movements were recorded and assessed using cross recurrence quantification analysis for qualities of coordination, including rate and duration of bouts of coordination. Results showed that children with ASD do not express an affinity to chaotic motion of the stimulus in the same way as children without ASD. We contend that this indifference to chaotic motion is foundational to their general disinterest in biological motion.
Tom Willmott and Dave Collins
This study offered a first examination of skill development within freeskiing and snowboarding, using semistructured interviews to examine trick progression. Participants were purposefully recruited as performing at world top 8 level in 2014, the most recent Winter Olympic Games. A semi structured interview protocol, using a personalized progress chart, enabled the examination of trick progression across disciplines, with at least one participant from each of the events represented at the Games. Trick progression was achieved intermittently, moving through different stages during the year subject to experiencing the right conditions, training facilities, balancing time for progression with time for consolidation, competition periods and rehabilitating from injuries. There was high variance in the duration of trick progression between individuals and also high variance in the number of repetitions required to land a trick in competition. Imagery was a mental skill widely used and universally supported by our sample. Athletes and coaches should take directionality into consideration when planning their progression, ensuring all four directions are included and that prerequisite manoeuvres are included in an athlete’s training repertoire at the right stage to facilitate the learning of more complex manoeuvres at a later stage of development. Our data found a 60–40 balance between time-spent training on and off-snow, further research is required to determine the best combination of traditional strength and conditioning versus movement conditioning approaches, both from an injury prevention and a performance enhancement perspective.