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Taylor K. Dinyer, M. Travis Byrd, Ashley N. Vesotsky, Pasquale J. Succi and Haley C. Bergstrom

relationship between total work (weight [in kilograms] × repetitions) and repetitions to failure for the bench press when the 2-parameter, linear model was applied. 19 The nonlinear-3 modeling of the resistance versus repetitions relationship for the bench press resulted in goodness-of-fit values ranging from

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J. Matt Green, P. Jason Wickwire, John R. McLester, Shawn Gendle, Geoffrey Hudson, Robert C. Pritchett and C. Matt Laurent

Context:

Ergogenic effects of caffeine on aerobic or endurance exercise are well documented. Conversely, the ergogenic value of caffeine on high-intensity, primarily anaerobic performance is not well understood even though the proposed mechanisms of action for caffeine permit a strong theoretical basis for application to this type of exercise.

Purpose:

This study examined effects of caffeine (Ca) on number repetitions (reps), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and peak heart rate (PHR) during resistance-training exercise with reps performed to volitional failure.

Methods:

Subjects (N = 17) were tested for 10-rep maximum in bench press (BP) and leg press (LP). In sessions 2 and 3, Ca (~6 mg/kg) or placebo (Pl) was ingested 1 hr beforehand in a double-blind manner and counterbalanced order. Subjects performed 3 sets to failure (BP and LP) with reps, PHR, and RPE recorded each set. Repeated-measures ANOVAs, 2 (trial) × 3 (set), were used to analyze dependent measures with the Tukey honestly significant difference used when necessary as the post hoc test.

Results:

In BP, no significant differences (Ca vs Pl) were observed (reps, RPE, PHR). During set 3 of LP training, Ca was associated with significantly higher reps (12.5 ± 4.2 vs 9.9 ± 2.6) and PHR (158.5 ± 11.9 vs 151.8 ± 13.2). No signifcant RPE differences were found during LP.

Conclusions:

The findings of similar RPE concurrent with higher reps suggest that caffeine can blunt pain responses, possibly delaying fatigue in high-intensity resistance training. Ergogenic effects might be limited to the later sets in a resistance-training session. Further research is warranted regarding ergogenic effects of caffeine during resistance training and potential mechanisms of action.

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Ben M. Krings, Brandon D. Shepherd, Hunter S. Waldman, Matthew J. McAllister and JohnEric W. Smith

repetition-to-failure protocol with the exercises of half squat, leg press, BP, military press, and seated row in females, observing a ∼12% increase in training session volume. Similar results have been observed with BP and leg press training session volume in males ( Bastos-Silva et al., 2019 ). With

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Miguel Sánchez-Moreno, David Rodríguez-Rosell, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Ricardo Mora-Custodio and Juan José González-Badillo

conducted a test to determine the maximum number of repetitions to failure (MNR test) without added weight. A subset of the total sample (39 subjects) performed the same experimental protocol on a second occasion (T2) after 12 weeks of RT. During this time, each subject trained following his usual routine

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Todd Anthony Astorino, Riana Lee Rohmann, Kelli Firth and Sondra Kelly

Caffeine (CAF) exerts a pressor effect both at rest and during exercise, as blood pressure is higher than with placebo. The effect of acute CAF ingestion combined with intense resistance training on cardiovascular function is unknown, however. The primary aim of the study was to examine changes in cardiovascular function after completion of fatiguing bench-press and leg-press exercise after CAF or placebo ingestion. Twenty-two resistance-trained men ingested CAF (6 mg/kg) or placebo 1 h pre exercise in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. They refrained from CAF intake and strenuous exercise 48 and 24 h pretrial, respectively. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured pre exercise. After a standardized warm-up, 1-repetition-maximum (1-RM) on the barbell bench press and leg press was tested. When it had been determined, a load equivalent to 60% of 1-RM was placed on the bar, and the subject completed repetitions to failure. Measurements of heart rate and blood pressure were immediately completed, and mean arterial pressure and rate-pressure product were calculated. Results showed significant (P < 0.05) increases in heart rate (+ 10 beats/min), systolic blood pressure (+ 8–10 mmHg), and rate-pressure product with acute CAF ingestion versus placebo. No change (P > 0.05) in diastolic blood pressure across time or treatment was shown. To prevent elevated blood pressure and potential enhanced risk of heart disease, CAF intake should be monitored in at-risk men who participate in resistance training.

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Christine B. Stopka, Kimberly L. Zambito, David G. Suro, Kevin S. Pearson, Ronald A. Siders and Buffy H. Goff

The purpose of this study was to evaluate gains in muscular endurance and physical capacity to perform work in 22 adolescents and young adults (ages 13-22 years) with MR. The participants were tested before and after two consecutive 3-week sessions of supervised resistance training. Specific muscle strength was evaluated using a three repetition maximum (3RM) test, and muscular endurance was assessed using a repetition to failure (RF) test at 60% of the 3RM. The chest press, leg extension, and torso arm exercises were tested. Participants trained twice per week during the training intervals. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA for repeated measures. Significant increases (p ≤ .05) in 3RM, RF, and total work performed during the RF test were found for the leg extension and torso arm exercises. Significant increases (p ≤ .05) in RF performance and total work performed during the RF test were found in the chest press. These results demonstrate that adolescents and young adults with MR can experience significant gains in muscular strength and endurance through a supervised resistance training program.

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Amador García-Ramos, Alejandro Torrejón, Belén Feriche, Antonio J. Morales-Artacho, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Paulino Padial and Guy Gregory Haff

several sets of repetitions to failure at the maximum possible velocity, while a skilled investigator checked that they were able to properly complete the testing procedures. The 1RM in the bench-press exercise was determined in the second testing session by means of an incremental loading test. Sessions

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Jozo Grgic, Filip Sabol, Sandro Venier, Ivan Mikulic, Nenad Bratkovic, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Craig Pickering, David J. Bishop, Zeljko Pedisic and Pavle Mikulic

.3 (2.3) 15.9 (2.8) 15.3 (2.8) 15.7 (2.6) 15.9 (2.7) PP for 1-RM barbell bench press (0–10 scale) 1.8 (2.4) 1.4 (2.2) 1.9 (2.5) 1.8 (2.2) 1.6 (1.9) Barbell back squat—repetitions to failure with 60% of 1-RM 21.7 (6.2) 21.1 (4.9) 25.9 (8.4) a,b 25.0 (6.1) a,b 25.5 (9.5) a,b RPE for barbell back

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Craig Pickering and Jozo Grgic

resistance-trained males 241 ± 122 mg Caffeinated coffee (0.15 g/kg; ∼5 mg/kg caffeine), caffeine (5 mg/kg), caffeine (5 mg/kg) + decaffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee. Nescafé Original coffee Squat and bench press repetitions to failure at 60% 1RM Caffeinated coffee enhanced performance compared

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Justin J. Merrigan, James J. Tufano, Jonathan M. Oliver, Jason B. White, Jennifer B. Fields and Margaret T. Jones

sets . J Strength Cond Res . 2016 ; 30 ( 1 ): 235 – 243 . PubMed ID: 26121432 doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001023 26121432 2. Izquierdo M , González-Badillo JJ , Häkkinen K , et al . Effect of loading on unintentional lifting velocity declines during single sets of repetitions to failure