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Natalie Cook and Tamerah N. Hunt

improving reporting behaviors. 2 It appears that educating athletes may decrease their willingness to report a concussion. 2 Further, recent research has taken into account other personal and socially motivated reasons, beyond concussion knowledge, why athletes may not report. 4 – 6 Overall, there is

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Emily Kroshus, Sara P.D. Chrisman, Jeffrey J. Milroy, and Christine M. Baugh

, on average males are more likely than females to strongly conform to these norms, and this in turn predicts sex differences in concussion reporting behavioral intentions ( Kroshus et al., 2017 ). To inform possible sub-group relevant approaches to intervention, it is important to investigate pathways

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Jennifer A. Beamer and Joonkoo Yun

With an increase in the presence of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the general physical education (GPE) classroom, understanding the current state of GPE teachers’ beliefs and behaviors for including these students is warranted. The current study aimed to examine the beliefs and self-reported behaviors of GPE teachers’ inclusion of students with ASD. In addition, the study examined potential factors affecting their inclusion behaviors. Using a national stratified random sample, participants were 142 current GPE teachers who submitted surveys anonymously online. Results from a regression analysis indicate that teachers’ experience, graduate coursework in adapted physical education (APE), and perceptions of strength in undergraduate training in APE significantly predicted their self-reported behavior for including students with ASD. Although the participant response rate is considerably low, this study provides some support toward the importance of teacher education programs for inclusion training.

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Jeffrey J. Milroy, Stephen Hebard, Emily Kroshus, and David L. Wyrick

; Register-Mihalik, et al., 2013 ; Torres, et al., 2013 ). There are also potentially modifiable differences in concussion reporting behavior. For some athletes, a lack of knowledge about the injury may be driving their delayed reporting ( Register-Mihalik, et al., 2013 ); however, a growing body of

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Mark Conner, Wendy Rodgers, and Terra Murray

The present study examined the moderating role of conscientiousness within the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for exercise behavior during usual vs. unusual context. Affective and cognitive attitude, subjective and descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention, past behavior, conscientiousness, and self-reported behavior were assessed in relation to exercising in a sample of university students (n = 146). Conscientiousness was found to significantly moderate the intention–behavior relationship when the behavior was performed in unusual context (exercising during a reading week of term), but not when behavior was performed in usual context (exercising during a normal week of term). The find-ings indicate a role for conscientiousness in understanding intention–behavior relationships when the context of behavior is changing or unknown.

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Thomas Curran, Andrew P. Hill, and Christopher P. Niemiec

The potential benefits of children’s engagement in sport for their psychological, social, and physical health are well established. Yet children may also experience psychological and social impairments due, in part, to a variety of detrimental coach behaviors. In the current study, we proposed and tested a conditional process model of children’s self-reported behavioral engagement and behavioral disaffection in sport based on self-determination theory. Results from a sample of 245 youth soccer players suggested that structure from coaches related positively to behavioral engagement and negatively to behavioral disaffection, and that these relations were mediated by athletes’ basic psychological need satisfaction. Importantly, and in line with our hypotheses, these indirect effects were moderated by autonomy support from coaches, such that the mediation was evident only among those who reported higher levels of autonomy support. These findings underscore the importance of coaches’ providing guidance, expectations, and feedback (i.e., structure) in a way that respects athletes’ volition (i.e., autonomy support).

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Gregory M. Dominick, Ruth Saunders, and Kelli Kenison

Background:

An important influence on youth physical activity (PA) is the provision of instrumental social support (ISS) by parents and other adults. Limited research exists about factors that influence parental provision of ISS for youth PA. Following a theory-based conceptual model, a measure for assessing ISS for PA was developed from elicitation survey results. The purpose of this paper is to describe elicitation methodology and ISS instrument development.

Methods:

Parents (N = 37) of children (5–14 years) responded to open-ended questions assessing modal beliefs about their provision of ISS for PA regarding a) positive/negative beliefs, b) normative beliefs, c) self-efficacy (SE), and d) ISS for PA. Data were analyzed qualitatively.

Results:

ISS behaviors reported by parents include enroll/sign-up youth for structured PA, paying expenses for participation in structured/unstructured PA, and providing transportation for unstructured/structured PA. Child health and fitness (benefits), and time/scheduling conflicts (barriers) were most frequently reported behavioral beliefs. Family members were most frequently identified as specific referents for normative beliefs. Final instrument scales yielded moderately high internal consistency reliability scores.

Conclusions:

When developing scales not previously assessed in a population, eliciting modal beliefs about a behavior is an important formative step in instrument development.

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Daheia J. Barr-Anderson, Ramona Robinson-O’Brien, Jess Haines, Peter Hannan, and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

Background:

Parent-report and child perception of familial support for weight-related behaviors may not be congruent. This research explores whether parent-report or child perception is more strongly associated with child-reported physical activity and television (TV) use.

Methods:

Elementary school children (n = 73) participating in Ready. Set. ACTION!, a theater-based obesity prevention pilot program in Saint Paul, MN, and their parents completed surveys assessing familial support for physical activity and limitations on TV use in fall 2006. Paired t tests examined congruency between parent-report and child perception. Linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographics explored the associations between familial support and child-reported behavior.

Results:

Levels of agreement between parent-report and child perception for support for physical activity and limitations on TV use were approximately 70%. Compared with parent-report for physical activity support, child perception was more strongly associated with child physical activity (β = .17, P = .02). Neither parent-report nor child perception for support for limitations on TV use was associated with child TV use.

Discussion:

Although parent-report and child perception of familial support for physical activity and to limit TV use were similar, child perception was more strongly associated with child physical activity behavior. More research, probably qualitative, is needed to examine how parents and children define and perceive parental support.

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Christine Dallaire, Louise Lemyre, Daniel Krewski, and Laura Beth Gibbs

In Canada, as in other neo-liberal states, a physically active lifestyle is discursively constructed as a moral activity, whereas a sedentary lifestyle is criticized as a failure to take charge of one’s health (Bercovitz, 2000; Lupton, 1997). This study aims to understand how Canadian men and women articulate the discursive connections between physical activity and health risks and how those connections are reflected in their reported behaviors. Analysis shows that some of the 37 men and 36 women interviewed not only “talk the talk” regarding physical activity, they also claim to lead an active lifestyle. However, “active” participants were disciplined into frequent physical activity not simply by the discursive effects of the fitness mantra promising better health, but because they enjoyed it. Conversely, the not-active-enough participants were unwilling to fully comply with the requirements of the fitness discourses because they found no pleasure in “exercise.” Despite adopting physical activity as a key strategy to manage their health risks, interviews revealed that the latter group were not docile bodies (Foucault, 1995).

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Lee E.F. Graves, Nicola D. Ridgers, Greg Atkinson, and Gareth Stratton

Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children’s objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8–10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d−1, p<.01) and sedentary video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d−1, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children’s PA and health.