Globally, sport governance systems have experienced a democratic shift in terms of expanding the forms and mechanisms of athlete representation across international, national, and local sports’ governing bodies (e.g., Geeraert, Alm, & Groll, 2013 ; Jackson & Richie, 2007 ; Thibault, Kihl
Lisa A. Kihl and Vicki Schull
’ femininity, heterosexuality, and heterosexual appeal over their athletic performance ( Billings, 2007 ; Bissell, 2006 ; Hull, Smith, & Schmittel, 2015 ; Kane & Maxwell, 2011 ). This pattern of representation extends into narrative films, which also portray athletic women in ways that fortify heterosexual
Adam J. White, Stefan Robinson, Eric Anderson, Rachael Bullingham, Allyson Pollock and Ryan Scoats
contested in public forums ( Slaughter & May, 2011 ), primarily concerning the lack of representation within the decision making and governance system. In England, rugby union participation figures show that between 70 and 80 percent of participants are under 24 years of age ( Rugby Football Union, 2011
Cornelia Frank, Taeho Kim and Thomas Schack
as a result of motor and cognitive types of practice. While researchers have started to look at the impact of learning by imagery on both the representation and the performance of a complex action (e.g., Frank, Land, Popp, & Schack, 2014 ; Simonsmeier, Frank, Gubelmann, & Schneider, 2018
Susan E. Inglis
The status and representation of women in university sport continues to be an area of concern and responsibility for the athletic administrator. This paper presents a description of the major philosophical and organizational changes that have occurred with the governance of women’s intercollegiate sport. Data from American and Canadian studies describing the involvement patterns of women in university sport are presented, and areas for reform that will increase the status and representation of women in university sport are put forward. Three areas for reform presented include (a) securing commitment to change, (b) improving professional preparations in career planning for women at high school and university levels who aspire to careers in athletics, as well as professional development for women currently involved in athletic administration, and (c) gaining support from academic areas in the identification of effective, positive change for women in university sport.
This article explores the intersection of representation, management, and race in the National Basketball Association (NBA) through a larger question on the relationship between corporate strategies for managing racialized subjects and popular representations of race. The NBA “brand”is situated in terms of recent developments in corporate and popular culture and then analyzed as an example of diversity management. Relying on original interviews with NBA corporate employees, as well as business and marketing industry reporting, the article analyzes the NBA as simultaneously an organization and a brand. As such, the NBA helps to “articulate” the corporate with the popular, largely through an implied racial project that manages race relations by continuing to equate corporate interests with Whiteness. The analysis contributes to ongoing discussions about the role of sports in perpetuating social disparities based on race at a time when “colorblindness” remains the paradigm of White approaches to race.
By Grant Farred. Temple University Press , 2018, Philadelphia (224 pp., $99.50 , hardback; $34.95 , paperback). In The Burden of Over-representation , Grant Farred illustrates the power of continental philosophy to illuminate the intersection of race, politics and sport which he captures in an
Rebecca A. Alt
By Andrew C. Billings and Jason Edward Black. University of Illinois Press , 2018, Urbana, IL. In Mascot Nation: The Controversy over Native American Representation in Sports , Billings and Black offer a careful analysis of Native American mascotting practices—names, images, and rituals—in U
Previous research has identified specific differences in cognition between experts and novices in problem-solving domains. To address the question of whether similar distinctions exist among springboard divers, six differences in problem representation and four differences in procedural knowledge were studied in elite and nonelite springboard divers. Subjects reported their thoughts immediately following dive performance. Verbal reports were converted into problem representations and production rules. Analysis of the representations and production rules revealed differences between elite and nonelite divers consistent with distinctions found between expert and novice problem-solvers. Elite problem representations contained more higher order concepts than nonelite representations. Moreover, the elite representations were more richly embedded, containing more concepts, features, and interrelations than the nonelite representations. Also, elite divers cited more production rules than nonelite divers. Elite production rules displayed a greater degree of sophistication in discrimination, proceduralization, composition, and strengthening.
Suzannah M. Armentrout, Cindra Kamphoff and Jeffrey Thomae
In this study we examined sport coverage and gender representation in photographic images in Sports Illustrated for Kids over a 3-year period. A content analysis of 4205 photographic images was conducted and data were analyzed using a chi-square analysis. Our research revealed that females were substantially underrepresented within the magazine (12%) and only appeared on the cover once over a 3-year period (<1%). The top three sports represented for men in SI for Kids were baseball, basketball, and football, whereas the top 3 “sports” for women were basketball, not in a sport (e.g., a fan), and soccer. Females were more likely than males to be represented in photographic images off the court, in individual sports, in feminine sports, in a posed position, as nonathletes, in tighter clothing, sleeveless shirts, with more of their legs showing, and with their midriff visible. When considering these findings in light of social learning theory, it is likely that media coverage within SI for Kids plays an important role in determining which sports are acceptable or unacceptable for boys and girls.