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Xavier Ohl, Pierre-Yves Lagacé, Fabien Billuart, Olivier Gagey, Wafa Skalli, and Nicola Hagemeister

A robust and reproducible scapular coordinate system is necessary to study scapulothoracic kinematics. The coordinate system recommended by the ISB (International Society of Biomechanics) is difficult to apply in studies using medical imaging, which mostly use a glenoid-centered coordinate system. The aim of this study was to assess the robustness of a glenoid-centered coordinate system compared with the ISB coordinate system, and to study the reproducibility of this coordinate system measure during abduction. A Monte-Carlo analysis was performed to test the robustness of the two coordinate systems. This method enabled the variability of the orientation of the coordinate system to be assessed in a laboratory setting. A reproducibility study of the glenoid-centered coordinate system in the thorax reference frame was performed during abduction in the scapular plane using a low-dose stereoradiography system. We showed that the glenoid-centered coordinate system was slightly more robust than the ISB-recommended coordinate system. Most reproducible rotation was upward/downward rotation (x axis) and most reproducible translation was along the Y axis (superior-inferior translation). In conclusion, the glenoid-centered coordinate system can be used with confidence for scapular kinematics analysis. The uncertainty of the measures derived from our technique is acceptable compared with that reported in the literature. Functional quantitative analysis of the scapulothoracic joint is possible with this method.

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Michael Wilkinson, Damon Leedale-Brown, and Edward M. Winter


We examined the reproducibility of performance and physiological responses on a squash-specific incremental test.


Eight trained squash players habituated to procedures with two prior visits performed an incremental squash test to volitional exhaustion on two occasions 7 days apart. Breath-by-breath oxygen uptake ( Vo2) and heart rate were determined continuously using a portable telemetric system. Blood lactate concentration at the end of 4-min stages was assessed to determine lactate threshold. Once threshold was determined, test speed was increased every minute until volitional exhaustion for assessment of maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max), maximum heart rate (HRmax), and performance time. Economy was taken as the 60-s mean of Vo2 in the final minute of the fourth stage (below lactate threshold for all participants). Typical error of measurement (TEM) with associated 90% confidence intervals, limits of agreement, paired sample t tests, and least products regression were used to assess the reproducibility of scores.


Performance time (TEM 27 s, 4%, 90% CI 19 to 49 s) Vo2max (TEM 2.4 mL·kg−1·min−1, 4.7%, 90% CI 1.7 to 4.3 mL·kg−1·min−1), maximum heart rate (TEM 2 beats·min−1, 1.3%, 90% CI 2 to 4 beats·min−1), and economy (TEM 1.6 mL·kg−1·min−1, 4.1%, 90% CI 1.1 to 2.8 mL·kg−1·min−1) were reproducible.


The results suggest that endurance performance and physiological responses to a squash-specific fitness test are reproducible.

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Jeffrey Martin and Drew Martin

Attention to the value of reproducing research is increasing in the social sciences ( Nosek & Lakens, 2014 ), exercise and sport psychology ( Martin et al., 2019 ), and disability sport psychology ( Atkinson & Martin, 2020 ). This increased attention started with Ioannidis ( 2005 ) and his, at the

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Fei Tian, Yaqi Zhao, Jixin Li, Wenjin Wang, Danni Wu, Qiang Li, Liyun Guo, and Shaobai Wang

Joint position sense (JPS) is a subcomponent of proprioception. JPS is often assessed by actively or passively reproducing joint position, which is determined by the absolute or relative error between the reproduced angle and the target angle 1 ; less error indicates better JPS. Although many

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Diogo V. Leal, Lee Taylor, and John Hough

detect alterations in the exercise-induced responses of these hormones as a consequence of intensified training period. To be of value in practice, this running 55/80 variant protocol must demonstrate reproducible hormone and physiological responses when participants are in a rested healthy state. The

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Erwan Leclair, Delphine Thevenet, Sophie C. Reguem, Benoit Borel, Georges Baquet, Serge Berthoin, and Patrick Mucci

This study was designed to test the reproducibility of muscle oxygenation by NIRS in children during exercise. Twelve healthy non-obese and non-trained children performed one maximal graded test, and four 6-min constant load cycle exercises. Deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb/Mb-H+) data were averaged every 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30s. Hb/Mb-H+ data averaged every 5, 10, 20 and 30s showed good reproducibility. When averaged every second, Hb/Mb-H+ values were reproducible after the first minute of exercise. Based on 1s averaged signal modeling, time period and t values for Hb/Mb-H+ were not reproducible but mean response time values showed an acceptable reproducibility.

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Sabrina Skorski, Oliver Faude, Seraina Caviezel, and Tim Meyer


To analyze the reproducibility of pacing in elite swimmers during competitions and to compare heats and finals within 1 event.


Finals and heats of 158 male swimmers (age 22.8 ± 2.9 y) from 29 nations were analyzed in 2 competitions (downloaded from Of these, 134 were listed in the world’s top 50 in 2010; the remaining 24 were finalists of the Pan Pacific Games or European Championships. The level of both competitions for the analysis had to be at least national championships (7.7 ± 5.4 wk apart). Standard error of measurement expressed as percentage of the subject’s mean score (CV) with 90% confidence limits (CL) for each 50-m split time and for total times were calculated. In addition, mixed general modeling was used to determine standard deviations between and within swimmers.


CV for total time in finals ranged between 0.8% and 1.3% (CL 0.6–2.2%). Regarding split times, 200-m freestyle showed a consistent pacing over all split times (CV 0.9–1.6%). During butterfly, backstroke, and 400-m freestyle, CVs were low in the first 3 and 7 sections, respectively (CV 0.9–1.7%), with greater variability in the last section (1.9–2.2%). In breaststroke, values were higher in all sections (CV 1.2–2.3%). Within-subject SDs for changes between laps were between 0.9% and 2.6% in all finals. Split-time variability for finals and heats ranged between 0.9% and 2.5% (CL 0.3–4.9%).


Pacing profiles are consistent between different competitions. Variability of pacing seems to be a result of the within-subject variation rather than a result of different competitions

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Víctor Rodríguez-Rielves, Alejandro Martínez-Cava, Ángel Buendía-Romero, José Ramón Lillo-Beviá, Javier Courel-Ibáñez, Alejandro Hernández-Belmonte, and Jesús G. Pallarés

reproducibility of the Rotor 2INpower, examining both its intradevice (errors generated when comparing several units of this powermeter 5 ) and interdevice (errors generated when comparing this powermeter against a gold standard 7 ) agreement. Moreover, examining this reproducibility when changing the cadence

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Petra Saur, Dagmar Koch, Ulrich Steinmetz, Michaela Czech, Michael Pfingsten, and Jan Hildebrandt


Trunk flexion and extension in normal participants using the Biodex and a LIDO-Back isokinetic trunk dynamometer.


Assessment of interreproducibility of the isokinetic LIDO-Back system.

Design and Setting:

Intertester reproducibility study in a tertiary-care center (outpatient rehabilitation).


10 healthy individuals (4 women and 6 men) with a mean age of 29 years.

Main Outcome Measures:

Intertester reproducibility correlations of the isokinetic LIDO-Back. Measurements of 2 therapists were calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC1,1).


For the flexion parameters the ICCs were between .86 and .98, and for extension, between .63 and .78.


A high intertester reproducibility relating to measurements of the LIDO-Back isokinetic trunk dynamometer was demonstrated. Intertester-reproducibility studies should become a routine method in the rehabilitation process.

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Christian Maiwald, Stefan Grau, Inga Krauss, Marlene Mauch, Detlef Axmann, and Thomas Horstmann

The aim of this study was to provide detailed information on rationales, calculations, and results of common methods used to quantify reproducibility in plantar pressure variables. Recreational runners (N = 95) performed multiple barefoot running trials in a laboratory setup, and pressure variables were analyzed in nine distinct subareas of the foot. Reproducibility was assessed by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and the root mean square error (RMSE). Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.58 to 0.99, depending on the respective variable and type of ICC. Root mean square errors ranged between 2.3 and 3.1% for relative force–time integrals, between 0.07 and 0.23 for maximum force (Fmax), and between 107 and 278 kPa for maximum pressure (Pmax), depending on the subarea of the foot. Force–time integral variables demonstrated the best within-subject reproducibility. Rear-foot data suffered from slightly increased measurement error and reduced reproducibility compared with the forefoot.