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Jane Marie Stangl and Mary Jo Kane

The dramatic decline of women coaches since Title IX has been well documented. This investigation examined how homologous reproduction has influenced the proportion of female to male head coaches within the historical context of Title IX. Homologous reproduction is a process whereby dominants reproduce themselves based on social and/or physical characteristics. Therefore the employment relationship between sex of athletic director and sex of head coach was considered. The sample included 937 public high schools for three Title IX time periods. Analysis of variance procedures indicated significant main effects for sex of athletic director and Title IX timeframe: Significantly more women were hired under female versus male athletic directors. However, there was also a significantly smaller proportion of female coaches in 1981-82 and 1988-89 compared to 1974-75. This latter pattern occurred under both female and male athletic directors. Findings are discussed in terms of analyzing employment practices toward females as manifestations of hegemony.

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Darin A. Padua, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, William E. Prentice, Robert E. Schneider and Edgar W. Shields


To determine whether select shoulder exercises influence shoulder-rotation strength, active angle reproduction (AAR), single-arm dynamic stability, and functional throwing performance in healthy individuals.






54, randomly placed in 4 training groups.


Four 5-week training protocols.

Main Outcome Measures:

Average shoulder-rotation torque, AAR, single-arm dynamic stability, and functional throwing performance.


Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed a significant group-by-test interaction for average torque (P > .05). Post hoc analyses revealed significantly increased average torque in the open kinetic chain and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) groups after training. AAR and sway velocity were not affected in any of the groups (P > .05), but functional performance revealed a significant group-by-test interaction (P < .05). Post hoc analysis demonstrated that the PNF group significantly improved after training (P < .05).


Shoulder strength can be improved in healthy individuals, but improvements depend on the exercise performed. Shoulder proprioception and neuromuscular control were unchanged in all groups, but functional performance improved in the PNF group

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Dianne S. Ward, Julie D. Jackman and Floyd J. Galiano

Seventeen children, ages 8-14 years, were compared to an adult group (n = 19) in their ability to execute prescriptive exercise using the Borg 6-20 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale. Subjects cycled at a controlled pace (setting resistance) for 2 minutes or traveled one lap of a 400-meter track at four RPE levels: 7, 10, 13, and 16. Results indicated that for pace-controlled cycling, children were similar to adults, reproducing four incremental intensities. Adults were closer to the laboratory determined criterion than the children were. For the self-paced walk/run tasks, both groups overexerted compared to the criterion. Children could only discriminate RPE 7 from the other levels. Based on these observations, it is recommended that exercise prescriptions for children using self-monitored intensity be preceded by adequate practice or be adjusted to account for different modes of activity.

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Nancy Colton

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Karen J. Reading, Linda J. McCargar and Vicki J. Harber

Menstrual abnormalities are associated with negative energy balance and reduced energy expenditure (REE). To examine this relationship in elite adolescent aesthetic athletes, 3 groups of females (aged 15-18 years) were studied: 10 oligo/amenorrheic athletes (OA), 11 eumenorrheic athletes (EA), and 8 non-athlete controls (C). Components of energy balance, body composition, dietary restraint, pubertal maturation, and luteal phase salivary progesterone were assessed in all groups. Both groups of athletes had a later age of menarche and lowerpubertal development score compared to the non-athletes (p < .05). With the exception of salivary progesterone (ng/ml; OA = 0.15±0.01 <EA = 0.29± 0.1 and C = 0.30 ± 0.13, /p = .007), there were no differences between the athlete groups. Energy balance (kcal/d) in the OA group was lower (−290 ± 677) compared to either EA (−5±461) or C (179 ± 592) but did not reach significance (p = .24). Dietary energy intake and absolute REE (kcal/d) were not different among groups, despite detectable differences in reproductive status, and thus could not be attributed to differences in energy balance or REE.

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Sarah Franklin

Debates concerning “the body,” embodiment, and corporeality have become increasingly central to cultural theory in the past decade. This article addresses the question of the “natural body” from the point of view of both traditional social theory (Marcel Mauss) and more recent arguments about the body as a site of enculturation. Why is the natural body preserved as a moral value within the realm of sport, while its limits are also pushed to “unnatural” extremes? By contrasting body building as sport (where anabolic steroid use is condemned) with reproductive body building (pregnancy, where steroid use is increasingly central), the paradoxical dimensions of the “(post)natural” body in sport are examined.

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Nancy I. Williams, Clara V. Etter and Jay L. Lieberman

An understanding of the health consequences of abnormal menstrual function is an important consideration for all exercising women. Menstrual disturbances in exercising women are quite common and range in severity from mild to severe and are often associated with bone loss, low energy availability, stress fractures, eating disorders, and poor performance. The key factor that causes menstrual disturbances is low energy availability created by an imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure that leads to an energy deficit and compensatory metabolic adaptations to maintain energy balance. Practical guidelines for preventing and treating amenorrhea in exercising women include evidence-based dietary practices designed to achieve optimal energy availability. Other factors such as gynecological age, genetics, and one’s susceptibility to psychological stress can modify an individual’s susceptibility to menstrual disturbances caused by low energy availability. Future research should explore the magnitude of these effects in an effort to move toward more individualized prevention and treatment approaches.

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Lisa Swanson

Zwick and Andrews (1999) argued that suburban American soccer fields merit critical academic attention because they highlight the practices of a dominant class. To gain an understanding of this specific field of power and privilege, I employed a multifaceted ethnographic approach to studying a group of upper-middle-class mothers whose children played youth soccer. I used Pierre Bourdieu’s (1984, 1993) sociological theories regarding the interplay between habitus and capital to analyze how the mothers shaped their sons’ youth sport experience to reproduce class status and social advantage in the next generation.

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Mary Jo Kane and Lisa J. Disch

Numerous media commentators have deemed the sexual harassment locker room incident between Lisa Olson and the New England Patriots to be an embarrassing case of mismanagement. Our analysis challenges this popular assumption; we argue that the event represents an overt manifestation of male power by means of sexual violence against women. The response to Olson suggests that in an era where women’s entry into sport has challenged men’s exclusive hold on that domain, the locker room, like the playing field, must be understood as contested terrain. For men to maintain control over the terrain of the locker room, the female sportswriter must be displaced from her role as authoritative critic of male performance and reassigned to her “appropriate” role of sexual object. In light of the importance of sport, and the status of the locker room as an inner sanctum of male privilege, the incident between Olson and the Patriots was not mismanaged at all but, in fact, handled effectively.