This study examined the relationships between high-intensity resistance exercise and bone mass in postmenopausal women and serum reproductive-hormone levels and bone-mass changes in response to resistance exercise. Women 45–65 years old were assigned to an exercise or a control group. They trained 3 times weekly for 18 weeks at 90,70, and 80% of their 1-RM. Groups were not different in age, height, body mass, muscle strength, or lean body mass. Initial muscle strength increased significantly in the training group. Total hip and intertrochanter bone-mineral density (BMD) increased in the training group. Estradiol, testosterone, osteocalcin, and CrossLaps concentration did not change in either group. Serum estradiol was significantly related to change in BMD at the hip, femoral neck, and intertrochanter, as well as change in lean mass. Results suggest that high-intensity resistance exercise can increase BMD of the hip and that serum estrogen concentrations might influence bone and muscle adaptations to resistance exercise in postmenopausal women.
Steven A. Hawkins, Robert A. Wiswell and E. Todd Schroeder
Ida A. Heikura, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Trent Stellingwerff, Dan Bergland, Antti A. Mero and Louise M. Burke
-class distance female and male athletes with two primary purposes: (a) to provide a cross-sectional report on measurements of EA, metabolic and reproductive hormonal function, bone mineral density (BMD), injury/illness rates, and body composition during a high-volume/intensity precompetition training period and
Janet Walberg-Rankin, Cynthia Eckstein Edmonds and Frank C. Gwazdauskas
This study assessed nutritional and body weight patterns in 6 female body- builders approximately a month before and after a competition. The women kept dietary and body weight records and two of them also agreed to collect morning urine samples to provide information about their menstrual cycle. All women lost weight before and gained weight after competition. Energy intake was modestly restricted and the subjects consumed a moderate-protein, low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet just prior to competition. Energy intake doubled, and total grams of fat increased approximately tenfold just after competition. Urinary data indicated that the cycle following competition was prolonged, with reduced reproductive hormone concentrations. In summary, the women practiced extreme dietary control while preparing for a competi- tion but followed the event with a higher energy and fat intake. These changes in diet and body weight may contribute to the disturbances previously observed in the menstrual cycle of these athletes.
Claire Rechichi, Brian Dawson and Carmel Goodman
Some reports suggest variation in physiological responses and athletic performance, for female athletes at specific phases of the menstrual cycle. However, inconsistent findings are common due to the inappropriate verification of menstrual cycle phase, small subject numbers, high intra- and interindividual variability in estrogen and progesterone concentration, and the pulsatile secretion of these hormones. Therefore, the oral contraceptive (OC) cycle may provide a more stable environment in which to evaluate the acute effect of reproductive hormones on physiological variables and exercise performance. To date, most of the OC research has compared differences between OC use and nonuse, and few researchers have examined within-cycle effects of the OC. It is also apparent that OC use is becoming far more prevalent in athletes; hence the effect of the different exogenous and endogenous hormonal profiles on athletic performance should be investigated. Research to date identifies potential for variation in aerobic performance, anaerobic capacity, anaerobic power and reactive strength throughout an OC cycle. The purpose of this review is to present and evaluate the current literature on the physiology of exercise and athletic performance during the OC cycle.
Ida A. Heikura, Marc Quod, Nicki Strobel, Roger Palfreeman, Rita Civil and Louise M. Burke
Purpose: To assess energy and carbohydrate (CHO) availability and changes in blood hormones in 6 professional male cyclists over multiple single-day races. Methods: The authors collected weighed-food records, power-meter data, and morning body mass measurements across 8 d. CHO intakes were compared with contemporary guidelines. Energy availability (EA) was calculated as energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure, relative to fat-free mass (FFM). Skinfold thickness and blood metabolic and reproductive hormones were measured prestudy and poststudy. Statistical significance was defined as P ≤ .05. Results: Body mass (P = .11) or skinfold thickness (P = .75) did not change across time, despite alternate-day low EA (14  vs 57  kcal·kg−1 FFM·d−1, race vs rest days, respectively; P < .001). Cyclists with extremely low EA on race days (<10 kcal·kg−1 FFM·d−1; n = 2) experienced a trend toward decreased testosterone (−14%) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (−25%), despite being high EA (>46 kcal·kg−1 FFM·d−1) on days between. CHO intakes were significantly higher on race versus rest days (10.7 [1.3] vs 6.4 [0.8] g·kg−1·d−1, respectively; P < .001). The cyclists reached contemporary prerace fueling targets (3.4 [0.7] g·kg−1·3 h−1 CHO; P = .24), while the execution of CHO guidelines during race (51  g·h−1; P = .048) and within acute (1.6 [0.5] g·kg−1·3 h−1; P = .002) and prolonged (7.4 [1.0] g·kg−1·24 h−1; P = .002) postrace recovery was poor. Conclusions: The authors are the first to report the day-by-day periodization of energy and CHO in a small sample of professional cyclists. They also examined the logistics of conducting a field study under stressful conditions in which major cooperation from the subjects and team management is needed. Their commentary around these challenges and possible solutions is a major novelty of the article.
Iñigo Mujika and Ritva S. Taipale
discussion of the possible influence of sex or reproductive hormones on outcome measures. Monitoring and reporting of menstrual-cycle phase takes a little extra time and effort but could explain “interesting” results. More research should test women in different phases of the menstrual cycle to further
Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale, Bryan Holtzman and Kathryn E. Ackerman
RED-S model lists as “metabolic,” “endocrine,” “menstrual function,” and “bone health” consequences ( Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). While it is well accepted that low EA affects reproductive hormones, resulting in menstrual dysfunction, it is important to clarify what is and is not known about other
Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A. Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R. Moore and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale
Differences Between Male and Female Athletes The ovarian hormones, estrogen and progesterone, are responsible for many of the sex differences observed in fuel metabolism. Unlike males, females experience changes to their reproductive hormonal milieu throughout their life span. The female reproductive cycle
Claire E. Badenhorst, Katherine E. Black and Wendy J. O’Brien
diagnostic tool for some individuals. The adequacy of EA for physiological functioning may also vary between individuals; hence, it is suggested that reproductive hormones also be monitored to confirm the presence of LEA ( Elliott-Sale et al., 2018 ). Further work would be beneficial to understand the
Bruno Marrier, Alexandre Durguerian, Julien Robineau, Mounir Chennaoui, Fabien Sauvet, Aurélie Servonnet, Julien Piscione, Bertrand Mathieu, Alexis Peeters, Mathieu Lacome, Jean-Benoit Morin and Yann Le Meur
ID: 29194183 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002038 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002038 29194183 34. Hackney AC , Premo MC , McMurray RG . Influence of aerobic versus anaerobic exercise on the relationship between reproductive hormones in men . J Sports Sci . 1995 ; 13 : 305 – 311 . PubMed ID: 7474044