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Markus Schäfer and Catharina Vögele

happening in the field and on the other hand, it can inspire future research and new generations of researchers. In principle, content analyses in sport communication can follow either a quantitative or a qualitative research logic and focus, for example, on different research topics, communication material

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David H. Perrin

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Timothy D. Lee and Heather Carnahan

than in previous motor learning theories ( Wulf & Lewthwaite, 2016 ). Lastly, the role of physical guidance as a source of augmented feedback deserves special mention. Long used (and oftentimes overused) in sport and training, physical guidance has been a research topic in motor learning for many years

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Sergio J. Ibáñez, Javier García-Rubio, Antonio Antúnez, and Sebastián Feu

formats. To keep current across scientific fields and research topics, researchers carry out theoretical projects in which they report progress made in a specific area. These theoretical investigations can take three possible forms ( Ato, López-García, & Benavente, 2013 ): (a) Narrative reviews – a

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T. Bettina Cornwell and Dae Hee Kwak

Sponsorship of sport has developed over the past three decades to become a worldwide communications platform, a motivator for relationship building, and an omnipresent aspect of consumer experience for many. While it has been and continues to be a funding mechanism for sport, it is the evolution and metamorphosis of sponsorship-linked marketing that delivers endless research topics as sponsoring evolves dynamically.

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Diane L. Gill

Information on submitted manuscripts and editorial decisions suggested that the journal has maintained its status as a respected sport and exercise psychology research publication from 1985 to 1990. Most submitted manuscripts described research on sport and exercise participants with research topics, samples, and methodologies that follow traditional patterns. Surveys and factorial or regression designs dominated, although some research using alternative approaches, particularly interpretive methodologies, has been submitted and published. Future research might expand to include more diverse participants, settings, and methodologies.

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Merrill J. Melnick and Donald F. Sabo

An analysis of the 434 free communications by the 575 presenters at the first seven annual meetings of NASSS (1980–1986) reveals several important patterns and trends with respect to (a) number of free communications, (b) number of presenters, (c) presenter’s sex, (d) presenter’s institutional affiliation, and (e) dual and multiple authorships. A classification of the free communications by subject matter reveals which research topics are of current interest to sport sociologists. Implications of these data for understanding the current stage of development of the subfield are discussed in relation to Mullins’ four-stage developmental model for scientific specialties.

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A. Craig Fisher

An individual differences approach to multidimensional scaling is outlined from the perspective of the modern interactional paradigm. The applicability of the individual differences model to anxiety research in sport settings is demonstrated. The model offers the advantage that both individual athlete data and group athlete data are revealed in the analysis simultaneously, without either analysis restricting the other. Representations of the structure in sport anxiety data matrices are unlocked by the individual differences model. Additional applications of the model to sport psychology research topics are offered.

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Caroline Wakefield and Dave Smith

Imagery is one of the most widely-researched topics in sport psychology. Recent research has been focused on how imagery works and how to apply it to have the greatest possible performance effect. However, the amount of imagery needed to produce optimal effects has been under-researched, particularly in relation to the PETTLEP model of imagery (Holmes & Collins, 2001). This study examined the effects of differing frequencies of PETTLEP imagery on bicep curl performance, using a single-case design. Following a baseline period, participants completed PETTLEP imagery 1×/week, 2×/week, or 3×/week in a counterbalanced pattern. Results indicated that PETTLEP imagery had a positive effect on performance. In addition, as the frequency of imagery increased, a larger performance effect was apparent. These results support the notion that PETTLEP imagery can lead to strength gains if performed at least 1× per week, but that completing imagery more frequently may be more effective.

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Daniel M. Landers

From 1950 to 1980, the field of sport psychology made significant strides. The developments were so rapid and so profound that this period can be called the “formative” years of the field. There was a tremendous expansion of the sport psychology literature, some of which constituted sustained contributions on a single research topic. Several textbooks and specialty books were published during this time period. Sport psychology journal articles expanded so much that journals devoted entirely to sport psychology research were created. The first graduate programs and research societies that focused more directly on sport psychology were also established. Applied sport psychology techniques, such as relaxation, imagery, and concentration training, were developed and made available to athletes. In addition to providing a description of the above-mentioned developments, some insights into dominant research methodology trends will be presented for the time periods of 1950 to 1965 and from 1966 to 1980.