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K. Fiona Iredale and Myra A. Nimmo

Thirty-three men (age 26–55 years) who did not exercise regularly were exercised to exhaustion using an incremental treadmill protocol. Blood lactate concentration was measured to identify lactate threshold (LT, oxygen consumption at which blood lactate concentration begins to systematically increase). The correlation coefficient for LT (ml · kg−1 · min−1) with age was not significant, but when LT was expressed as a percentage of peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak), the correlation was r = +.69 (p < .01). This was despite a lack of significant correlation between age and VO2 peak (r = −.33). The correlation between reserve capacity (the difference between VO2 peak and LT) and age was r = −.73 (p < .01 ), and reserve capacity decreased at a rate of 3.1 ml · kg−1 · min−1 per decade. It was concluded that the percentage of VO2 peak at which LT occurs increases progressively with age, with a resultant decrease in reserve capacity.

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Katie A. Conway, Randall G. Bissette and Jason R. Franz

available to enhance push-off intensity during the push-off phase of walking could empower the discriminate prescription of gait interventions that target plantarflexor mechanical output and thereby improve translational outcomes. Figure 1 —(A) Schematic operationally defining FCU and reserve capacity

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Deborah Hebling Spinoso, Nise Ribeiro Marques, Dain Patrick LaRoche, Camilla Zamfollini Hallal, Aline Harumi Karuka, Fernanda Cristina Milanezi and Mauro Gonçalves

speed and limited reserve capacity to increase walking speed in comparison with young women. Second, it was hypothesized that significant linear relationships would exist between maximal strength and FD such that strength thresholds associated with 80% FD can be calculated. Accordingly, the knee

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Michael J. Davies, Bradley Clark, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J. Gore and Kevin G. Thompson

acceptable pace is adopted. 2 Recently, researchers have manipulated athletes’ expectations and beliefs regarding their abilities to examine how performance can be enhanced through access of reserve capacities. 3 , 4 To achieve this, deceptive information is provided, therein manipulating perceptual

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Arturo Casado and Andrew Renfree

generate higher final segment speeds through greater maintenance of physiological reserve capacity 12 in the earlier stages of the race. Although both events are considered “middle-distance” events, our findings highlight key tactical differences. Of particular interest is the apparent stability of race

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Nathan F. Meier, Yang Bai, Chong Wang and Duck-chul Lee

functional reserve capacity. The prediction equation, developed from the averaged appendicular 50-kHz resistance value, derived very similar beta estimates, a slightly stronger overall R 2 value, and a lower standard error compared with a similar study conducted in a Korean sample ( Kim et al., 2014

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ZhiWei Liu, Ting Chen, Mingkang Shen, Kai Li, ChunJie Ma, Antonnette Ketlhoafetse and XiangYun Liu

musculoskeletal systems of older adults; the improvement of cardiopulmonary reserve capacity; reducing anxiety and depression levels, and so forth ( Liu, Li, et al., 2019 ; Zhu, Shen, Shen, Jin, & Lou, 2017 ). It has positive effects on common diseases such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and

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Twan ten Haaf, Selma van Staveren, Danilo Iannetta, Bart Roelands, Romain Meeusen, Maria F. Piacentini, Carl Foster, Leo Koenderman, Hein A.M. Daanen and Jos J. de Koning

-0030-1255029 24. Satz P . Brain reserve capacity on symptom onset after brain injury: a formulation and review of evidence for threshold theory . Neuropsychology . 1993 ; 7 ( 3 ): 273 – 295 . doi:10.1037/0894-4105.7.3.273 10.1037/0894-4105.7.3.273 25. Hynynen E , Uusitalo A , Konttinen N

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Frances A. Kanach, Amy M. Pastva, Katherine S. Hall, Juliessa M. Pavon and Miriam C. Morey

report whether the study was adequately powered to detect an effect. New measures that take account of premorbid function and the physiologic reserve capacity to meet the demands of exercise during periods of acute illness may be useful ( Goldspink, 2005 ; Hill, Dranka, Zou, Chatham, & Darley

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Wouter Schallig, Tim Veneman, Dionne A. Noordhof, José A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, John P. Porcari, Jos J. de Koning and Carl Foster

Inexperienced athletes will have a less-linear template because they are less confident in finishing the race without harm and therefore maintain a larger reserve capacity. 30 , 31 , 33 In general, the RPE template can be described (on the Category Ratio 10 scale) by an RPE of ∼4 at 25% of the race distance