endurance exercise performance by delaying muscle fatigue ( Braakhuis & Hopkins, 2015 ; Cobley et al., 2011 ; Reid, 2008 ). The focus of this review is to explore the impact of resistance training (RT) on antioxidant defenses and the effect of antioxidant supplementation on RT exercise performance and
Ahmed Ismaeel, Michael Holmes, Evlampia Papoutsi, Lynn Panton and Panagiotis Koutakis
Akinobu Nishimura, Masaaki Sugita, Ko Kato, Aki Fukuda, Akihiro Sudo and Atsumasa Uchida
Recent studies have shown that low-intensity resistance training with vascular occlusion (kaatsu training) induces muscle hypertrophy. A local hypoxic environment facilitates muscle hypertrophy during kaatsu training. We postulated that muscle hypertrophy can be more efficiently induced by placing the entire body in a hypoxic environment to induce muscle hypoxia followed by resistance training.
Fourteen male university students were randomly assigned to hypoxia (Hyp) and normoxia (Norm) groups (n = 7 per group). Each training session proceeded at an exercise intensity of 70% of 1 repetition maximum (RM), and comprised four sets of 10 repetitions of elbow extension and fexion. Students exercised twice weekly for 6 wk and then muscle hypertrophy was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and muscle strength was evaluated based on 1RM.
Muscle hypertrophy was significantly greater for the Hyp-Ex (exercised fexor of the hypoxia group) than for the Hyp-N (nonexercised fexor of the hypoxia group) or Norm-Ex fexor (P < .05, Bonferroni correction). Muscle hypertrophy was significantly greater for the Hyp-Ex than the Hyp-N extensor. Muscle strength was significantly increased early (by week 3) in the Hyp-Ex, but not in the Norm-Ex group.
This study suggests that resistance training under hypoxic conditions improves muscle strength and induces muscle hypertrophy faster than under normoxic conditions, thus representing a promising new training technique.
Grant M. Tinsley and Darryn S. Willoughby
Low-carbohydrate and very-low-carbohydrate diets are often used as weight-loss strategies by exercising individuals and athletes. Very-low-carbohydrate diets can lead to a state of ketosis, in which the concentration of blood ketones (acetoacetate, 3-β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone) increases as a result of increased fatty acid breakdown and activity of ketogenic enzymes. A potential concern of these ketogenic diets, as with other weight-loss diets, is the potential loss of fat-free mass (e.g., skeletal muscle). On examination of the literature, the majority of studies report decreases in fat-free mass in individuals following a ketogenic diet. However, some confounding factors exist, such as the use of aggressive weight-loss diets and potential concerns with fat-free mass measurement. A limited number of studies have examined combining resistance training with ketogenic diets, and further research is needed to determine whether resistance training can effectively slow or stop the loss of fat-free mass typically seen in individuals following a ketogenic diet. Mechanisms underlying the effects of a ketogenic diet on fat-free mass and the results of implementing exercise interventions in combination with this diet should also be examined.
Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Cristian Martínez, Carlos I. de La Fuente, Eduardo L. Cadore, Mário C. Marques, Fabio Y. Nakamura, Irineu Loturco, Alexis Caniuqueo, Rodrigo Cañas and Mikel Izquierdo
Older women participated in a 12-week high-speed resistance training program under two supervisor-to-subject ratio methods (i.e., high versus low supervision) to assess its effects on muscle strength, power, functional performance, and quality of life assessed before (T1) and after (T2) intervention. Women were divided into either the control group (CG, n = 15), high supervision group (HSG, n = 30), or low supervision group (LSG, n = 28). The training program included exercises requiring high-speed concentric muscle actions. No differences were observed among groups at T1. Between T1 and T2, the HSG showed a higher (p < .05) improvement in muscle strength (ES = 0.36–1.26), power (ES = 0.5–0.88), functional performance (ES = 0.52–0.78), and quality of life (ES = 0.44–0.82) compared with LSG and CG. High-speed resistance training under closer supervision is more effective for improving muscle strength, power, functional performance, and quality of life in older women.
Paulo Farinatti, Silvio Rodrigues Marques Neto, Ingrid Dias, Felipe A. Cunha, Eliete Bouskela and Luiz G. Kraemer-Aguiar
Cardiac autonomic dysfunction (CADysf) in children is often associated to obesity and may be attenuated by physical activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of resistance training (RT) upon CADysf assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) in obese adolescents.
Volunteers were assigned into groups according to standard deviation scores for body mass index (z-BMI) and percentile for age and sex: obese (OB; z-BMI from 2 to 3 and ≥ 95th percentile, n = 24) and normal weight controls (CG; z-BMI from -2–1 and < 85th percentile, n = 20). OB performed isolated RT during 12 weeks [3 sets of 6–10reps with 70–85% 10RM]. Waist circumference, systolic/diastolic blood pressures (SBP/DBP), lipids, and HRV were assessed at baseline. Only OB underwent postintervention assessments.
At baseline, SBP (122.4 ± 9.1 vs. 109.7 ± 11.5 mmHg, p < .001) and DBP (76.1 ± 7.1 vs. 65.3 ± 5.9 mmHg, p < .001) were higher, while parasympathetic HRV indexes were lower (p < .05) in OB compared with CG. After RT, waist circumference (3%, p < .001) and SBP (10%, p < .001) reduced in OB. Parasympathetic indexes of HRV increased in OB (SDNN: 25%, p = .03; rMSSD: 48%, p = .0006; pNN50: 67%, p = .001; total power: 54%, p = .01; HF: 101%, p = .001) and baseline differences between groups for sympathetic and parasympathetic activities were no longer observed after RT.
RT attenuated CAdyfs and BP in obese adolescents, by increasing parasympathetic activity and decreasing sympatho-vagal balance.
William J. Kraemer, Andrew C. Fry, Peter N. Frykman, Brian Conroy and Jay Hoffman
The use of resistance training for children has increased in popularity and interest. It appears that children are capable of voluntary strength gains. Exercise prescription in younger populations is critical and requires certain program variables to be altered from adult perspectives. Individualization is vital, as the rate of physiological maturation has an impact on the adaptations that occur. The major difference in programs for children is the use of lighter loads (i.e., > 6 RM loads). It appears that longer duration programs (i.e., 10-20 wks) are better for observing training adaptations. This may be due to the fact that it takes more exercise to stimulate adaptational mechanisms related to strength performance beyond that of normal growth rates. The risk of injury appears low during participation in a resistance training program, and this risk is minimized with proper supervision and instruction. Furthermore, with the incidence of injury in youth sports, participation in a resistance training program may provide a protective advantage in one’s preparation for sports participation.
Children develop lower levels of muscle force, and at slower rates, than adults. Although strength training in children is expected to reduce this differential, a synchronous adaptation in the tendon must be achieved to ensure forces continue to be transmitted to the skeleton with efficiency while minimizing the risk of strain- related tendon injury. We hypothesized that resistance training (RT) would alter tendon mechanical properties in children concomitantly with changes in force production characteristics. Twenty prepubertal children (age 8.9 ± 0.3 yr) were equally divided into control (nontraining) and experimental (training) groups. The training group completed a l0-week RT intervention consisting of 2–3 sets of 8–15 plantar flexion contractions performed twice weekly on a recumbent calf-raise machine. Achilles tendon properties (cross-sectional area, elongation, stress, strain, stiffness, and Young’s modulus), electromechanical delay (EMD; time between the onset of muscle activity and force), rate of force development (RFD; slope of the force-time curve), and rate of electromyographic (EMG) increase (REI; slope of the EMG time curve) were measured before and after RT. Tendon stiffness and Young’s modulus increased significantly after RT in the experimental group only (~29% and ~25%, respectively); all other tendon properties were not significantly altered, although there were mean decreases in both peak tendon strain and strain at a given force level (14% and 24%, respectively; not significant) which may have implications for tendon injury risk and muscle fiber mechanics. A decrease of ~13% in EMD was found after RT for the experimental group, which paralleled the increase in tendon stiffness (r = −0.59); however, RFD and REI were unchanged. The present data show that the Achilles tendon adapts to RT in prepubertal children and is paralleled by a change in EMD, although the magnitude of this change did not appear to be sufficient to influence RFD. These findings are of importance within the context of the efficiency and execution of movement.
Avery D. Faigenbaum
adequate foundation of strength for power training activities. Resistance training is a critical component of long-term athletic development models ( 16 ), and the International Olympic Committee recognizes the importance of strength and conditioning as a means to enhance athleticism and to foster positive
Eric T. Poehlman and Christopher Melby
In this brief review we examine the effects of resistance training on energy expenditure. The components of daily energy expenditure are described, and methods of measuring daily energy expenditure are discussed. Cross-sectional and exercise intervention studies are examined with respect to their effects on resting metabolic rate, physical activity energy expenditure, postexercise oxygen consumption, and substrate oxidation in younger and older individuals. Evidence is presented to suggest that although resistance training may elevate resting metabolic rate, il does not substantially enhance daily energy expenditure in free-living individuals. Several studies indicate that intense resistance exercise increases postexercise oxygen consumption and shifts substrate oxidation toward a greater reliance on fat oxidation. Preliminary evidence suggests that although resistance training increases muscular strength and endurance, its effects on energy balance and regulation of body weight appear to be primarily mediated by its effects on body composition (e.g., increasing fat-free mass) rather than by the direct energy costs of the resistance exercise.
Jeremy A. Steeves, Scott A. Conger, Joe R. Mitrzyk, Trevor A. Perry, Elise Flanagan, Alecia K. Fox, Trystan Weisinger and Alexander H.K. Montoye
days per week ( U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2018 ). Also known as resistance training, muscle-strengthening activities can include using resistance bands, body weight as resistance, free-weights, and weight machines. Resistance training is an increasingly popular exercise activity