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Gertjan Ettema, Tommy Gløsen, and Roland van den Tillaar

Purpose:

The main purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a specific resistance training program (throwing movement with a pulley device) with the effect of regular training (throwing with regular balls) on overarm throwing velocity under various conditions.

Methods:

The training forms were matched for total training load, ie, impulse generated on the ball or pulley device. Both training groups (resistance training n = 7 and regular training n = 6) consisted of women team handball players, and trained 3 times per week for 8 weeks, according to an assigned training program alongside their normal handball training.

Results:

An increase in throwing velocity with normal balls after the training period was observed for both groups (P = .014), as well as throwing with heavier balls and throwing like actions in the pulley device. Although the regular training group seemed to improve more (6.1%) in throwing velocity with normal balls than the resistance training group (1.4%), this difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusions:

These findings indicate that resistance training does not surpass standard throwing training in improvement of overarm throwing velocity.

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Francesco Campa, Hannes Gatterer, Henry Lukaski, and Stefania Toselli

Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) has been suggested to be capable of assessing fluid changes under various conditions. 1 – 4 BIVA 5 classifies changes in hydration status by solely considering impedance components (resistance [ R ] and reactance [ X c ]). One limitation of

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Alexandre Murian, Thibault Deschamps, and Jean Jacques Temprado

The current study investigated the influence of resistance to motion and trial duration on the stability of bimanual coordination patterns and attentional demands. Seven participants performed in-phase and antiphase coordination patterns at a frequency of 1.5 Hz for 300 s. Resistance opposed to pronation–supination movements was manipulated. Attentional demands associated with the bimanual coordination patterns performance were measured using a probe reaction-time task. Results showed that variations in the level of resistance to motion, which induced corresponding variations in the amount of muscle activation during both the in-phase and the antiphase pattern, were associated with longer reaction time. Relative phase variability and attentional demands were higher for the antiphase pattern than for the in-phase pattern. Moreover, the attentional demands did not covary with the increase in the antiphase pattern over the trial duration. The in-phase pattern remained unaffected by resistance opposed to pronation–supination movement. The present findings and the time effect are discussed according to potential alterations localized in different sites at the cortical level.

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Roberta Gaspar, Natalia Padula, Tatiana B. Freitas, João P.J. de Oliveira, and Camila Torriani-Pasin

, spinal cord injury AND resistance training, spinal cord injury AND balance training, and spinal cord injury AND gait training. Only research on human beings, published in English, which had the keywords in the titles and/or abstracts were considered in the search. In this review, the studies included

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Ahmed Ismaeel, Michael Holmes, Evlampia Papoutsi, Lynn Panton, and Panagiotis Koutakis

, vitamin E, carotenoids, and flavonoids, which scavenge ROS ( Birben et al., 2012 ). ROS include peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, hydroperoxyl radical, singlet oxygen, alpha-oxygen, and hydrogen peroxide ( Niki, 2018 ). Single bouts of endurance or resistance exercise can promote the generation of

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Christos K. Argus, Nicholas D. Gill, Justin W.L. Keogh, Michael R. McGuigan, and Will G. Hopkins

Purpose:

There is little literature comparing contrast training programs typically performed by team-sport athletes within a competitive phase. We compared the effects of two contrast training programs on a range of measures in high-level rugby union players during the competition season.

Methods:

The programs consisted of a higher volume-load (strength-power) or lower volume-load (speed-power) resistance training; each included a tapering of loading (higher force early in the week, higher velocity later in the week) and was performed twice a week for 4 wk. Eighteen players were assessed for peak power during a bodyweight countermovement jump (BWCMJ), bodyweight squat jump (BWSJ), 50 kg countermovement jump (50CMJ), 50 kg squat jump (50SJ), broad jump (BJ), and reactive strength index (RSI; jump height divided by contact time during a depth jump). Players were then randomized to either training group and were reassessed following the intervention. Inferences were based on uncertainty in outcomes relative to thresholds for standardized changes.

Results:

There were small between-group differences in favor of strength-power training for mean changes in the 50CMJ (8%; 90% confidence limits, ±8%), 50SJ (8%; ±10%), and BJ (2%; ±3%). Differences between groups for BWCMJ, BWSJ, and reactive strength index were unclear. For most measures there were smaller individual differences in changes with strength-power training.

Conclusion:

Our findings suggest that high-level rugby union athletes should be exposed to higher volume-load contrast training which includes one heavy lifting session each week for larger and more uniform adaptation to occur in explosive power throughout a competitive phase of the season.

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Kate M. Luckin-Baldwin, Claire E. Badenhorst, Ashley J. Cripps, Grant J. Landers, Robert J. Merrells, Max K. Bulsara, and Gerard F. Hoyne

.14814/phy2.13149 28292885 10. Aagaard P , Andersen JL , Bennekou M , et al . Effects of resistance training on endurance capacity and muscle fiber composition in young top-level cyclists . Scand J Med Sci Sports . 2011 ; 21 ( 6 ): e298 – e307 . PubMed ID: 21362056 doi: 10.1111/j.1600

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Iñigo Mujika, Bent R. Rønnestad, and David T. Martin

Despite early and ongoing debate among athletes, coaches, and sport scientists, it is likely that resistance training for endurance cyclists can be tolerated, promotes desired adaptations that support training, and can directly improve performance. Lower-body heavy strength training performed in addition to endurance-cycling training can improve both short- and long-term endurance performance. Strength-maintenance training is essential to retain strength gains during the competition season. Competitive female cyclists with greater lower-body lean mass (LBLM) tend to have ~4–9% higher maximum mean power per kg LBLM over 1 s to 10 min. Such relationships enable optimal body composition to be modeled. Resistance training off the bike may be particularly useful for modifying LBLM, whereas more cycling-specific training strategies like eccentric cycling and single-leg cycling with a counterweight have not been thoughtfully investigated in well-trained cyclists. Potential mechanisms for improved endurance include postponed activation of less efficient type II muscle fibers, conversion of type IIX fibers into more fatigue-resistant IIa fibers, and increased muscle mass and rate of force development.

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Clementine Grandou, Lee Wallace, Aaron J. Coutts, Lee Bell, and Franco M. Impellizzeri

Resistance training is often undertaken by athletes who strive to improve muscle strength, hypertrophy, and power. 1 It is well accepted that resistance training can enhance an athlete’s ability to perform general sporting skills (eg, jumping and sprinting), which may result in superior

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Rory Mack, Jeff Breckon, Joanne Butt, and Ian Maynard

), sustain talk (athlete language against behavior change), ambivalence (athlete language that indicates mixed feelings about behavior change), and resistance (athlete language that indicates a lack of readiness for behavior change). All participants stated that they are constantly listening to the language