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Comparison of Regional Hamstrings Activation During Resistance Exercises in Females With Prior Athletic Experience

Kevin McCurdy and John Walker

to analyze activation patterns of individual HM. 3 However, Schoenfeld et al 4 recently investigated regional hamstrings activation during various resistance exercises and found some evidence of regional activation. Further investigation of regional hamstrings activation may provide a better

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Effect of Surface Stability on Core Muscle Activity for Dynamic Resistance Exercises

Jeffrey M. Willardson, Fabio E. Fontana, and Eadric Bressel


To compare core muscle activity during resistance exercises performed on stable ground vs. the BOSU Balance Trainer.


Twelve trained men performed the back squat, dead lift, overhead press, and curl lifts. The activity of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominis, transversus abdominis/internal oblique abdominis, and erector spinae muscles was assessed. Subjects performed each lift under three separate conditions including standing on stable ground with 50% of a 1-RM, standing on a BOSU Balance Trainer with 50% of a 1-RM, and standing on stable ground with 75% of a 1-RM.


Significant differences were noted between the stable 75% of 1-RM and BOSU 50% of 1-RM conditions for the rectus abdominis during the overhead press and transversus abdominis/internal oblique abdominis during the overhead press and curl (P < .05). Conversely, there were no significant differences between the stable 75% of 1-RM and BOSU 50% of 1-RM conditions for the external obliques and erector spinae across all lifts examined. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between the BOSU 50% of 1-RM and stable 50% of 1-RM conditions across all muscles and lifts examined.


The current study did not demonstrate any advantage in utilizing the BOSU Balance Trainer. Therefore, fitness trainers should be advised that each of the aforementioned lifts can be performed while standing on stable ground without losing the potential core muscle training benefits.

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Weight Lifted and Countermovement Potentiation of Power in the Concentric Phase of Unstable and Traditional Resistance Exercises

Erika Zemková, Michal Jeleň, Zuzana Kovác̆iková, Gábor Ollé, Tomáš Vilman, and Dušan Hamar

The study evaluates the effect of weight lifted on power in the concentric phase of resistance exercises on stable and unstable surfaces. A group of 19 fit men performed randomly on different days 3 reps of (a) barbell chest presses on the bench and Swiss ball, and (b) barbell squats on stable base and BOSU ball. Exercises were performed without and with countermovement (CM) using maximal effort in concentric phase. Initial weight of 20 kg was increased by 10 kg or 5 kg (at higher loads) up to at least 85% of previously established 1RM under stable conditions. Results showed no significant differences in mean power in the concentric phase of stable and unstable CM chest presses at lower weights lifted (from 20 to 50 kg). However, its values were significantly higher during chest presses on the bench than on Swiss ball while lifting higher weights (from 60 to 90 kg). Similarly, mean power in the concentric phase of squats was significantly higher on stable base than on BOSU ball at higher weights lifted (from 60 to 90 kg). Though a set of data showed significant differences, the effect sizes ≤ 0.7 suggest no practically meaningful differences. It may be concluded that unstable base compromises the power in the concentric phase of resistance exercises, however, only at higher weights lifted.

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Perception of Bar Velocity Loss in Resistance Exercises: Accuracy Across Loads and Velocity Loss Thresholds in the Bench Press

Antonio Dello Iacono, Kevin Watson, Milan Marinkovic, and Israel Halperin

a single reference value such as the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). 3 , 4 The decline in velocity output observed during resistance exercises provides actionable information on the extent of acute neuromuscular fatigue, which accumulates over consecutive repetitions and sets. 5 , 6 Moreover, velocity

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Validation of Power Measurement Techniques in Dynamic Lower Body Resistance Exercises

Prue Cormie, Jeffrey M. McBride, and Grant O. McCaulley

The objective of this study was to investigate the validity of power measurement techniques utilizing various kinematic and kinetic devices during the jump squat (JS), squat (S) and power clean (PC). Ten Division I male athletes were assessed for power output across various intensities: 0, 12, 27, 42, 56, 71, and 85% of one repetition maximum strength (1RM) in the JS and S and 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of 1RM in the PC. During the execution of each lift, six different data collection systems were utilized; (1) one linear position transducer (1-LPT); (2) one linear position transducer with the system mass representing the force (1-LPT+MASS); (3) two linear position transducers (2-LPT); (4) the force plate (FP); (5) one linear position transducer and a force plate (1-LPT+FP); (6) two linear position transducers and a force place (2-LPT+FP). Kinetic and kinematic variables calculated using the six methodologies were compared. Vertical power, force, and velocity differed significantly between 2-LPT+FP and 1-LPT, 1-LPT+MASS, 2-LPT, and FP methodologies across various intensities throughout the JS, S, and PC. These differences affected the load–power relationship and resulted in the transfer of the optimal load to a number of different intensities. This examination clearly indicates that data collection and analysis procedures influence the power output calculated as well as the load–power relationship of dynamic lower body movements.

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How One Feels During Resistance Exercises: A Repetition-by-Repetition Analysis Across Exercises and Loads

Aviv Emanuel, Isaac Rozen Smukas, and Israel Halperin

Context: The Feeling Scale (FS) is a unique and underexplored scale in sport sciences that measures affective valence. The FS has the potential to be used in athletic environments as a monitoring and prescription tool. Purpose: To examine whether FS ratings, as measured on a repetition-by-repetition basis, can predict proximity to task failure and bar velocity across different exercises and loads. Methods: On the first day, 20 trained participants (10 females) completed 1-repetition-maximum (1-RM) tests in the barbell bench and squat exercises and were introduced to the FS. In the following 3 sessions, participants completed 3 sets to task failure with either (1) 70% 1-RM bench press, (2) 70% 1-RM squat (squat-70%), or (3) 80% 1-RM squat (squat-80%). Sessions were completed in a randomized, counterbalanced order. After every completed repetition, participants verbally reported their FS ratings. Bar velocity was measured via a linear position transducer. Results: FS ratings predicted failure proximity and bar velocity in all 3 conditions (P < .001, R 2 .66–.85). Based on the analysis, which included over 2400 repetitions, a reduction of 1 unit in the FS corresponded to approaching task failure by 14%, 11%, and 11%, and to a reduction in bar velocity of 10%, 4%, and 3%, in the bench, squat-70%, and squat-80%, respectively. Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate whether the FS can be used in resistance-training environments among resistance-trained participants on a repetition-by-repetition basis. The results indicate that the FS can be used to monitor and prescribe resistance training and that its benefits should be further explored.

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The Effects of Sport-Specific Maximal Strength and Conditioning Training on Critical Velocity, Anaerobic Running Distance, and 5-km Race Performance

Bettina Karsten, Liesbeth Stevens, Mark Colpus, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, and Fernando Naclerio


To investigate the effects of a sport-specific maximal 6-wk strength and conditioning program on critical velocity (CV), anaerobic running distance (ARD), and 5-km time-trial performance (TT).


16 moderately trained recreational endurance runners were tested for CV, ARD, and TT performances on 3 separate occasions (baseline, midstudy, and poststudy).


Participants were randomly allocated into a strength and conditioning group (S&C; n = 8) and a comparison endurance-trainingonly group (EO; n = 8). During the first phase of the study (6 wk), the S&C group performed concurrent maximal strength and endurance training, while the EO group performed endurance-only training. After the retest of all variables (midstudy), both groups subsequently, during phase 2, performed another 6 wk of endurance-only training that was followed by poststudy tests.


No significant change for CV was identified in either group. The S&C group demonstrated a significant decrease for ARD values after phases 1 and 2 of the study. TT performances were significantly different in the S&C group after the intervention, with a performance improvement of 3.62%. This performance increase returned close to baseline after the 6-wk endurance-only training.


Combining a 6-wk resistance-training program with endurance training significantly improves 5-km TT performance. Removing strength training results in some loss of those performance improvements.

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The Acute Effects of Mat Pilates on Hemodynamic and Salivary Nitrite Responses After Exercise in Postmenopausal Women

Jaqueline P. Batista, Igor M. Mariano, Tállita C.F. Souza, Juliene G. Costa, Jéssica S. Giolo, Nádia C. Cheik, Foued S. Espindola, Sarah Everman, and Guilherme M. Puga

decreased estrogen, alterations to the lipid profile, weight gain, and more sedentary behavior within this population ( Maas & Franke, 2009 ). PEH can occur after aerobic and resistance exercises or after a combination of the two ( Anunciação & Polito, 2011 ; MacDonald, 2002 ), but only a small number of

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The Effects of Blood Flow Restriction on Muscle Activation and Hypoxia in Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability

Brian Killinger, Jakob D. Lauver, Luke Donovan, and John Goetschius

has been shown to enhance training adaptations in muscle strength, endurance, and hypertrophy when combined with traditional submaximal exercises. 17 , 18 Evidence suggests that submaximal resistance exercises (20%–50% max) combined with BFR can produce greater improvements in muscle strength, 18

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Effect of 10 Weeks of Complex Training on Speed and Power in Academy Soccer Players

Thomas I. Gee, Paul Harsley, and Daniel C. Bishop

representative of prescribed combination programs within soccer athletes, which commonly feature a variety of high-load strength exercises and both plyometric and explosive resistance exercises. 2 , 5 Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of complex-paired and reverse-contrast 10-week training