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Dennis L. Smart and Richard A. Wolfe

This paper addresses the determinants of intercollegiate athletic program success. We built our arguments on a recent development in the strategic management literature, the Resource-Based View (RBV) of the firm. Our purpose was to investigate the source of sustainable intercollegiate athletic program success. In making our arguments, we briefly reviewed the RBV literature and addressed appropriate success criteria for intercollegiate athletics programs. An exploratory investigation of Pennsylvania State University's football program led to the conclusion that the resources responsible for its enduring competitive advantage are the history, relationships, trust, and organizational culture that have developed within the program's coaching staff. An organization that possesses such organizational resources may sustain a competitive advantage by exploiting its human and physical resources more completely than other organizations. The paper concludes with discussions of the potential generalizability of our findings, their implications for theory and practice, and suggested future research directions.

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John Amis, Narayan Pant, and Trevor Slack

This study demonstrates that a recent development in the strategic management literature, the resource-based view of the firm, has great utility for furthering our understanding of sport sponsorship. The paper provides a theoretical framework to explain the application of the approach to sponsorship. Illustration and greater insight are then provided through the presentation of two case studies. These are used to identify the salient characteristics of agreements made by two international companies, each of which has been extensively involved in sport sponsorship but with varying degrees of success. The resource-based approach is used to demonstrate that the disparate returns of the companies' sponsorship investments could have been anticipated. As such, as well as providing a conceptual extension to the sponsorship literature, the paper also offers a route for more empirical analyses of potential sponsorship opportunities.

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Marlene A. Dixon, B. Christine Green, Arden Anderson, and Peter Evans

strategies and program success. Using theory in sport development and the resource-based view (RBV), the purpose of this study was to examine six new girls’ sport offerings within the United States and United Kingdom to identify the resources obtained and mobilized to create new and distinctive sport

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Joe Cobbs, B. David Tyler, Jonathan A. Jensen, and Kwong Chan

Accessing and exploiting organizational resources are essential capabilities for competitive sport organizations, particularly those engaged in motorsports, where teams lacking resources frequently dissolve. Corporate sponsorship represents a common method for resource acquisition, yet not all sponsorships equally benefit the sponsored organization. Sponsorship utility can be dependent on institutional dynamics such as league governance that produces competitive disparities. Through this study we extend the resource-based view to assert that sponsorships vary in their propensity to contribute to team survival, warranting prioritization in sponsorship strategy based on access to different sponsor resources. To empirically investigate the influence of a variety of sponsorships, survival analysis modeling was used to examine 40 years of corporate sponsorship of Formula One racing teams. One finding from the longitudinal analysis was that sponsorships offering financial or performance-based resources enhance team survival to a greater degree than operational sponsorships. However, such prioritization is subject to team experience, changes in institutional monetary allocation, and diminishing returns.

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Liz Wanless and Jeffrey L. Stinson

obvious benefits to practice, both theoretical and statistical justification warrant considering the internal variables and a broader set of external variables. Resource-based view (RBV) theory advocates that the internal environment plays a significant role in organizational effectiveness. Wernerfelt

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Bill Gerrard

The resource-based view explains sustainable competitive advantage as the consequence of an organization’s endowment of unique and imperfectly replicable resources. Superior organizational performance, however, depends not only on the organization’s resource endowment but also on the efficiency with which the resource endowment is used. In this article a resource-utilization model of a professional sports team is developed in which teams optimize the stock of athletic resources (i.e., playing talent), subject to ownership preferences, over sporting and financial performance. The resource-utilization model is used to analyze the factors influencing the team’s current endowment of athletic resources and evaluate the efficiency with which teams utilize both their athletic and allegiance (i.e., fan base) resources to achieve sporting and financial targets. Empirical evidence is presented on the sporting and financial performance of English professional soccer teams in the FA Premier League over the period 1998-2002. It was found that the financial performance of teams is significantly affected by their ownership status.

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Kamran Eshghi, Hesam Shahriari, and Sourav Ray

productive value from the deployment of their resources—in this case, their sports sponsorship investments and activation efforts. These differences could be described from the perspective of the resource-based view (RBV) and the related, dynamic capability view of the firm, either as firm-specific embedded

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Christopher M. McLeod and Calvin Nite

finding from the data was the importance of growing and developing players and labor. Therefore, we added theories on athlete labor (human capital theory, marginal revenue product, and resource-based view) to our literature review (see Figure  1 ). Next, we returned to the data and introduced the second

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Gareth J. Jones, Katie Misener, Per G. Svensson, Elizabeth Taylor, and Moonsup Hyun

), resource-based views have proven adept at analyzing the partnering decisions of nonprofits ( Arik, Clark, & Raffo, 2016 ), particularly as the boundaries between these sectors have become increasingly blurred ( Maier et al., 2016 ). In particular, RDT is a useful lens to examine strategic collaborations

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Karsten Elmose-Østerlund, Graham Cuskelly, Jens Høyer-Kruse, and Christian Røj Voldby

types of capacity in the Hall et al. model align closely with the three categories of a firm’s resources advanced by Barney ( 1991 ) in his resource-based view (RBV): physical, human, and organizational capital (our italics). Hall et al. also argued that as a concept, capacity is closely linked to