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Han-Kyu Park, Dong-Woo Kim, and Tae-Ho Kim

(0.5 mm, 10 rings) at a distance of 10 m. 1 It requires psychological stability when shooting, attention and concentration, good control of respiration, aiming accuracy, time on shoot, and stability of the gun. 2 – 5 Another important factor in shooting performance is postural balance. 6 Postural

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Kevin Boldt, Anthony Killick, and Walter Herzog

A 1:1 locomotion–respiration entrainment is observed in galloping quadrupeds, and is thought to improve running economy. However, this has not been tested directly in animals, as animals cannot voluntarily disrupt this entrainment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate metabolic economy in a human gait involving all four limbs, cross-country skiing, in natural entrainment and forced nonentrainment. Nine elite cross-country skiers roller skied at constant speed using the 2-skate technique. In the first and last conditions, athletes used the natural entrained breathing pattern: inhaling with arm recovery and exhaling with arm propulsion, and in the second condition, the athletes disentrained their breathing pattern. The rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) and metabolic rate (MR) were measured via expired gas analysis. Propulsive forces were measured with instrumented skis and poles. VO2 and MR increased by 4% and 5% respectively when skiers used the disentrained compared with the entrained breathing pattern. There were no differences in ski or pole forces or in timing of the gait cycle between conditions. We conclude that breathing entrainment reduces metabolic cost of cross-country skiing by approximately 4%. Further, this reduction is likely a result of the entrainment rather than alterations in gait mechanics.

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Danielle Peers, Lindsay Eales, Kelvin Jones, Aidan Toth, Hernish Acharya, and Janice Richman–Eisenstat

The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and meaningfulness of a 15-week recreational dance and singing program for people with neuromuscular conditions. Within a transformative mixed-methods design, pulmonary function tests, plethysmography through wearable technology (Hexoskin vests), individualized neuromuscular quality-of-life assessments (version 2.0), and semistructured interviews were used. The interviews were analyzed through inductive, semantic thematic analysis. Although the sample sizes were small (six people with neuromuscular conditions), the authors found no evidence of safety concerns. There was evidence of respiratory improvements and reported improvements in swallowing and speech. The most notable quality-of-life changes included improvements related to weakness, swallowing, relationships, and leisure. The participants shared that the program offered meaningful social connection and embodied skills and safe and pleasurable physical exertion. The authors learned that recreational singing and dancing programs could be a safe and deeply meaningful activity for those with neuromuscular conditions that impact respiration.

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Deidre Leaver-Dunn, James B. Robinson, and Jeff Laubenthal

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Jamie R. Skaggs, Elizabeth R. A. LaGuardia Joiner, Milo Sini, Tishya A.L. Wren, Regina P. Woon, and David L. Skaggs


A commonly encountered clinical scenario in athletic training is determining what body position is best for pulmonary recovery after strenuous training. Coaches often advise athletes to put their hands behind their heads following rigorous training, but this practice has no scientific support.


The purpose of this study is to determine how arm and body position affects ventilation in high school athletes. Our hypothesis is that a position in which the athlete is bent forward with the hands on the knees maximizes ventilation.


Case series.


Seventeen healthy members of a high school track team, 8 females and 9 males with a mean age of 16.3 years (range: 14.6–18.5 years), performed a maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) test using a portable spirometer in three different positions: standing with (1) hands behind the head, (2) arms at the sides, and (3) leaning forward with hands resting on the knees.


The MVV performed with hands on knees (120.2 ± 5.9 L/min) was significantly higher than the MVV performed with hands at sides (109.3 ± 7.0 L/min; p = .004) and with hands behind head (114.1 ± 5.9 L/min; p = .03). The MVV performed with hands behind head and with arms at side did not differ significantly (p = .20).


This is the first study examining the best body position to maximize ventilation in athletes. Leaning forward and placing the hands on the knees led to a significantly greater MVV compared with standing with the arms at the side and standing with the hands behind the head.

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Kendra Nelson Ferguson, Craig Hall, and Alison Divine

applied, biofeedback training can teach an athlete how to voluntarily control anatomic responses, such as respiration rate, heart rate, skin conductance, electromyography, and temperature. The intuitive feedback that biofeedback provides about physiological activity could have a direct impact on an

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Mahin Aghdaei, Alireza Farsi, Maryam Khalaji, and Jared Porter

machine 10 min Statistical Analysis Separate repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted on each dependent variable (average V O ˙ 2 , respiration volume and breathing frequency, heart rate, blood lactate, and Borg RPE). Alpha level was set at p  < .05 for all statistical tests. Partial eta

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Frederick S. Daniels and Daniel M. Landers

This study investigated heart rate (HE) and respiration functioning during rifle shooting to test hypotheses derived from Schwartz's (1979) systems and disregulation theory, and to compare biofeedback with verbal instruction in developing awareness and control of autonomic patterns. Male subjects (N = 8) were pretested to determine HE and respiration patterns affecting performance. They were then divided into two equal groups and given either auditory biofeedback or verbal instruction. The auditory-biofeedback group received continuous pattern feedback through earphones while the verbal instruction group received only presession instruction without feedback. Each group trained for five sessions of 40 shots each. Following training, two 40-shot sessions were conducted. A scaled interview was administered pre- and posttraining to determine awareness/control of autonomic functioning. Compared to the verbal instruction group, the results showed that the biofeedback group significantly improved performance and consistency of the desired pattern and had significantly greater awareness/control of the autonomic pattern. The results supported the systems and disregulation theory as well as the viability of biofeedback for altering imbalances within the systems.

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Hélène Perrault, Maria Tzovanis, Dominique Johnson, André Davignon, Claude Chartrand, Abdelkader Mokrane, and Réginald A. Nadeau

This study compares the autonomic responses of 9 adolescents (mean ± SEM: 17±1 years) successfully operated for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in early childhood and 8 age-matched healthy controls (CTRL) using R-R and blood pressure variability. Continuous ECG and BP recordings were obtained during spontaneous and controlled respiration (CR) at 0.20 Hz as well as after an 85° head-up tilt (HUT) and during steady-state cycling at heart rates of 100 and 120 bpm, selected to reflect partial and complete cardiac vagal withdrawal. TOF exhibited total R-R variance and HF power (ms2) lower than CTRL under both spontaneous (938 ± 322 vs. 1,714 ± 296) and CR (1,541 ± 527 vs. 4,725 ± 1,207; p < .05), which may be indicative of a lower cardiac vagal activity. HUT decreased the R-R HF component, which remained lower in TOF than CTRL and increased the diastolic BP LF component in TOF but not in CTRL. Exercise decreased the R-R HF power more in TOF than CTRL. The exaggerated diastolic BP and limited heart rate responses to tilting and the more marked vagal withdrawal at Ex120 in TOF may be suggestive of a disturbance in the cardiac sympathetic response. Further studies are needed to confirm these observations on larger groups of young adults successfully operated for TOF.

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Sung-min Ha, Oh-yun Kwon, Su-jung Kim, and Sung-dae Choung


A normal breathing pattern while performing the abdominal-hollowing (AH) maneuver or spinal-stabilization exercise is essential for the success of rehabilitation programs and exercises. In previous studies, subjects were given standardized instructions to control the influence of respiration during the AH maneuver. However, the effect of breathing pattern on abdominal-muscle thickness during the AH maneuver has not been investigated.


To compare abdominal-muscle thickness in subjects performing the AH maneuver under normal and abnormal breathing-pattern conditions and to investigate the effect of breathing pattern on the preferential contraction ratio (PCR) of the transverse abdominis.


Comparative, repeated-measures experimental study.


University research laboratory.


16 healthy subjects (8 male, 8 female) from a university population.


A real-time ultrasound scanner was used to measure abdominal-muscle thickness during normal and abnormal breathing patterns. A paired t test was used to assess the effect of breathing pattern on abdominal-muscle thickness and PCR.


Muscle thickness in the transverse abdominis and internal oblique muscles was significantly greater under the normal breathing pattern than under the abnormal pattern (P < .05). The PCR of the transverse abdominis was significantly higher under the normal breathing pattern compared with the abnormal pattern (P < .05).


The results indicate that a normal breathing pattern is essential for performance of an effective AH maneuver. Thus, clinicians should ensure that patients adopt a normal breathing pattern before performing the AH maneuver and monitor transverse abdominis activation during the maneuver.