(0.5 mm, 10 rings) at a distance of 10 m. 1 It requires psychological stability when shooting, attention and concentration, good control of respiration, aiming accuracy, time on shoot, and stability of the gun. 2 – 5 Another important factor in shooting performance is postural balance. 6 Postural
Han-Kyu Park, Dong-Woo Kim, and Tae-Ho Kim
Kevin Boldt, Anthony Killick, and Walter Herzog
A 1:1 locomotion–respiration entrainment is observed in galloping quadrupeds, and is thought to improve running economy. However, this has not been tested directly in animals, as animals cannot voluntarily disrupt this entrainment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate metabolic economy in a human gait involving all four limbs, cross-country skiing, in natural entrainment and forced nonentrainment. Nine elite cross-country skiers roller skied at constant speed using the 2-skate technique. In the first and last conditions, athletes used the natural entrained breathing pattern: inhaling with arm recovery and exhaling with arm propulsion, and in the second condition, the athletes disentrained their breathing pattern. The rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) and metabolic rate (MR) were measured via expired gas analysis. Propulsive forces were measured with instrumented skis and poles. VO2 and MR increased by 4% and 5% respectively when skiers used the disentrained compared with the entrained breathing pattern. There were no differences in ski or pole forces or in timing of the gait cycle between conditions. We conclude that breathing entrainment reduces metabolic cost of cross-country skiing by approximately 4%. Further, this reduction is likely a result of the entrainment rather than alterations in gait mechanics.
Danielle Peers, Lindsay Eales, Kelvin Jones, Aidan Toth, Hernish Acharya, and Janice Richman–Eisenstat
The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and meaningfulness of a 15-week recreational dance and singing program for people with neuromuscular conditions. Within a transformative mixed-methods design, pulmonary function tests, plethysmography through wearable technology (Hexoskin vests), individualized neuromuscular quality-of-life assessments (version 2.0), and semistructured interviews were used. The interviews were analyzed through inductive, semantic thematic analysis. Although the sample sizes were small (six people with neuromuscular conditions), the authors found no evidence of safety concerns. There was evidence of respiratory improvements and reported improvements in swallowing and speech. The most notable quality-of-life changes included improvements related to weakness, swallowing, relationships, and leisure. The participants shared that the program offered meaningful social connection and embodied skills and safe and pleasurable physical exertion. The authors learned that recreational singing and dancing programs could be a safe and deeply meaningful activity for those with neuromuscular conditions that impact respiration.
Deidre Leaver-Dunn, James B. Robinson, and Jeff Laubenthal
Jamie R. Skaggs, Elizabeth R. A. LaGuardia Joiner, Milo Sini, Tishya A.L. Wren, Regina P. Woon, and David L. Skaggs
A commonly encountered clinical scenario in athletic training is determining what body position is best for pulmonary recovery after strenuous training. Coaches often advise athletes to put their hands behind their heads following rigorous training, but this practice has no scientific support.
The purpose of this study is to determine how arm and body position affects ventilation in high school athletes. Our hypothesis is that a position in which the athlete is bent forward with the hands on the knees maximizes ventilation.
Seventeen healthy members of a high school track team, 8 females and 9 males with a mean age of 16.3 years (range: 14.6–18.5 years), performed a maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) test using a portable spirometer in three different positions: standing with (1) hands behind the head, (2) arms at the sides, and (3) leaning forward with hands resting on the knees.
The MVV performed with hands on knees (120.2 ± 5.9 L/min) was significantly higher than the MVV performed with hands at sides (109.3 ± 7.0 L/min; p = .004) and with hands behind head (114.1 ± 5.9 L/min; p = .03). The MVV performed with hands behind head and with arms at side did not differ significantly (p = .20).
This is the first study examining the best body position to maximize ventilation in athletes. Leaning forward and placing the hands on the knees led to a significantly greater MVV compared with standing with the arms at the side and standing with the hands behind the head.
Kendra Nelson Ferguson, Craig Hall, and Alison Divine
applied, biofeedback training can teach an athlete how to voluntarily control anatomic responses, such as respiration rate, heart rate, skin conductance, electromyography, and temperature. The intuitive feedback that biofeedback provides about physiological activity could have a direct impact on an
Mahin Aghdaei, Alireza Farsi, Maryam Khalaji, and Jared Porter
machine 10 min Statistical Analysis Separate repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted on each dependent variable (average V O ˙ 2 , respiration volume and breathing frequency, heart rate, blood lactate, and Borg RPE). Alpha level was set at p < .05 for all statistical tests. Partial eta
Frederick S. Daniels and Daniel M. Landers
This study investigated heart rate (HE) and respiration functioning during rifle shooting to test hypotheses derived from Schwartz's (1979) systems and disregulation theory, and to compare biofeedback with verbal instruction in developing awareness and control of autonomic patterns. Male subjects (N = 8) were pretested to determine HE and respiration patterns affecting performance. They were then divided into two equal groups and given either auditory biofeedback or verbal instruction. The auditory-biofeedback group received continuous pattern feedback through earphones while the verbal instruction group received only presession instruction without feedback. Each group trained for five sessions of 40 shots each. Following training, two 40-shot sessions were conducted. A scaled interview was administered pre- and posttraining to determine awareness/control of autonomic functioning. Compared to the verbal instruction group, the results showed that the biofeedback group significantly improved performance and consistency of the desired pattern and had significantly greater awareness/control of the autonomic pattern. The results supported the systems and disregulation theory as well as the viability of biofeedback for altering imbalances within the systems.
Maurice R. Puyau, Anne L. Adolph, Yan Liu, Theresa A. Wilson, Issa F. Zakeri, and Nancy F. Butte
The absolute energy cost of activities in children increases with age due to greater muscle mass and physical capability associated with growth and developmental maturation; however, there is a paucity of data in preschool-aged children. Study aims were 1) to describe absolute and relative energy cost of common activities of preschool-aged children in terms of VO2, energy expenditure (kilocalories per minute) and child-specific metabolic equivalents (METs) measured by room calorimetry for use in the Youth Compendium of Physical Activity, and 2) to predict METs from age, sex and heart rate (HR).
Energy expenditure (EE), oxygen consumption (VO2), HR, and child-METs of 13 structured activities were measured by room respiration calorimetry in 119 healthy children, ages 3 to 5 years.
EE, VO2, HR, and child-METs are presented for 13 structured activities ranging from sleeping, sedentary, low-, moderate- to high-active. A significant curvilinear relationship was observed between child-METs and HR (r 2 = .85; P = .001).
Age-specific child METs for 13 structured activities in preschool-aged children will be useful to extend the Youth Compendium of Physical Activity for research purposes and practical applications. HR may serve as an objective measure of MET intensity in preschool-aged children.
Andrew T. Doyle, Christine Lauber, and Kendra Sabine
Tendinopathies plague many active individuals, causing pain and reducing sport activity by decreasing range of motion and strength. There are many modalities that have been used to treat pain associated with chronic inflammation, such as ultrasound, moist heat packs, and electrical stimulation. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is one such modality. Potential benefits of managing pain associated with tendinopathies have been investigated using LLLT. Cellular respiration and metabolism are thought to be increased by LLLT acting on the mitochondrial cytochromes. The effects LLLT may have on cellular activity could increase blood flow to progress the healing process by reducing the pain-spasm cycle. The purpose of this critically appraised topic is to identify the clinical effectiveness of LLLT on pain associated with tendinopathy and to identify the parameters used to achieve statistically and clinically relevant pain outcomes.
Focused Clinical Question:
What is the effect of LLLT on pain associated with tendinopathy?
Clinical Bottom Line:
Although LLLT significantly decreases pain from baseline, its use may be no better than placebo or traditional treatments such as ultrasound, moist heat packs, electrical stimulation, or therapeutic exercise to reduce pain associated with tendinopathy. Total accumulated joules across the treatment sessions may need to be taken into account as a parameter.