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Sheng Li, Woo-Hyung Park, and Adam Borg

The study investigated squeezing reaction time (RT) in response to a visual cue during rhythmic voluntary breathing at 0.6 Hz paced by a metronome, breath holding, or at rest in 13 healthy subjects. Rhythmic voluntary breathing slowed down RT, only in the expiratory phase with accompanied changes in the length of respiratory phases, while breath-holding reduced RT. The prolonged RT during voluntary expiratory phases and the absence of changes in RT during voluntary inspiratory phases are most likely related to disproportionally increased cognitive demands during the expiratory phase of voluntary breathing. The absence of changes in RT during voluntary inspiration is likely to be compensated by respiratory-motor facilitation mechanisms in this phase. Shortened RT during breath holding is possibly associated with increased attention.

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Cátia Paixão, Ana Tavares, and Alda Marques

, dementia is one of the main causes of disability and dependency in older people ( World Health Organization, 2012 ). It affects around 50 million older people worldwide. This number is expected to rise to 131 million older people by 2050 ( Prince, 2015 ). Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are the

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Adam M. Hyde, Robert G. McMurray, Frank A. Chavoya, and Daniela A. Rubin ). Total body fat (TBF) and lean body mass (LBM) excluding bone were measured via whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry scan (Lunar Prodigy Advance; GE Healthcare, Madison, WI). Metabolic and Respiratory Measurements Participants were fitted with an oronasal mask (model 7450; Hans Rudolph, Shawnee, KS) with

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Irene Torres-Sánchez, Araceli Ortiz-Rubio, Irene Cabrera-Martos, María Granados-Santiago, Isabel López-Torres, and Marie Carmen Valenza

-related quality of life (Saint George’s Respiratory Questionnaire), 27 and respiratory function (predicted forced vital capacity [FVC%] and forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1%], spirometry). 28 In addition, previous-year PA levels and cognitive and emotional status were assessed as main outcomes. Emotional

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Roy J. Shephard

Aging leads to a progressive deterioration of lung function, including a decrease of vital capacity, an increase of residual volume, a tendency for the airways to collapse during expiration, enlargement of all components of the respiratory dead space, a poor mixing of inspired gas, poor matching of ventilation with perfusion, a decrease of pulmonary diffusing capacity, and a substantial increase in the work of breathing. Ventilatory demand is increased during most physical tasks, but arterial blood homeostasis is surprisingly well maintained when elderly persons undertake vigorous exercise because peak cardiac output declines in parallel with the loss of ventilatory function. However, dyspnea progressively restricts peak effort as one ages. The exercise specialist cannot restore aged or damaged pulmonary tissue but can attempt to reduce the rate of future functional loss by encouraging smoking cessation, avoiding air pollution, and controlling acute infections. Enhanced fitness, stronger skeletal muscles, and better coordination can reduce ventilatory demand. Resisted breathing exercises may also strengthen the chest muscles and allow a mechanically more efficient pattern of breathing.

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Andrea Nicolò, Marco Montini, Michele Girardi, Francesco Felici, Ilenia Bazzucchi, and Massimo Sacchetti

effort can be measured by means of respiratory frequency ( f R ), but current evidence is limited to cycling exercise. 11 Unlike V ˙ O 2 , HR, and blood lactate concentration, f R shows a close association with RPE during high-intensity interval training (HIIT) 12 , 13 and other high

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Thomas Sawczuk, Ben Jones, Mitchell Welch, Clive Beggs, Sean Scantlebury, and Kevin Till

Consequently, in an effort to maximize youth athlete development and performance, regular monitoring of the risk of upper respiratory illness (URI) has been encouraged. 13 Despite this, only one study has evaluated the risk of URI in youth athletes, 14 as the majority of studies in the area have focused on

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Rodrigo Torres-Castro, Luis Vasconcello-Castillo, Roberto Acosta-Dighero, Nicolás Sepúlveda-Cáceres, Marisol Barros-Poblete, Homero Puppo, Roberto Vera-Uribe, Jordi Vilaró, and Mario Herrera-Romero

children and adolescents with chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) differ from their healthy peers. Some authors have suggested that children and adolescents with CRDs are less physically active; 12 , 13 however, other authors have shown that there is no difference between these two groups. 14 – 16 Our

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David Barranco-Gil, Jaime Gil-Cabrera, Pedro L. Valenzuela, Lidia B. Alejo, Almudena Montalvo-Pérez, Eduardo Talavera, Susana Moral-González, and Alejandro Lucia

Various intensity thresholds have been proposed to differentiate the heavy from the severe intensity domain, that is, the transition from steady- to non-steady-state oxidative metabolism. Among these thresholds is the respiratory compensation point (RCP), which corresponds to the maximum exercise

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Erin Calaine Inglis, Danilo Iannetta, Daniel A. Keir, and Juan M. Murias

” is a key element in predicting performance and assessing training effectiveness. 1 Among the indices thought to reflect this important boundary are the respiratory compensation point (RCP) and the near-infrared spectroscopy-derived muscle deoxyhemoglobin ([HHb]) break point ([HHb] BP ) of ramp