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Phase-Dependent Respiratory-Motor Interactions in Reaction Time Tasks During Rhythmic Voluntary Breathing

Sheng Li, Woo-Hyung Park, and Adam Borg

The study investigated squeezing reaction time (RT) in response to a visual cue during rhythmic voluntary breathing at 0.6 Hz paced by a metronome, breath holding, or at rest in 13 healthy subjects. Rhythmic voluntary breathing slowed down RT, only in the expiratory phase with accompanied changes in the length of respiratory phases, while breath-holding reduced RT. The prolonged RT during voluntary expiratory phases and the absence of changes in RT during voluntary inspiratory phases are most likely related to disproportionally increased cognitive demands during the expiratory phase of voluntary breathing. The absence of changes in RT during voluntary inspiration is likely to be compensated by respiratory-motor facilitation mechanisms in this phase. Shortened RT during breath holding is possibly associated with increased attention.

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Respiratory Function and Upper Extremity Functional Activity Performance in People With Dementia: A Shout for Attention

Cátia Paixão, Ana Tavares, and Alda Marques

, dementia is one of the main causes of disability and dependency in older people ( World Health Organization, 2012 ). It affects around 50 million older people worldwide. This number is expected to rise to 131 million older people by 2050 ( Prince, 2015 ). Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are the

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Ventilatory Responses During Submaximal Exercise in Children With Prader–Willi Syndrome

Adam M. Hyde, Robert G. McMurray, Frank A. Chavoya, and Daniela A. Rubin ). Total body fat (TBF) and lean body mass (LBM) excluding bone were measured via whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry scan (Lunar Prodigy Advance; GE Healthcare, Madison, WI). Metabolic and Respiratory Measurements Participants were fitted with an oronasal mask (model 7450; Hans Rudolph, Shawnee, KS) with

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Influence of Previous-Year Physical Activity on the Cognition of Older COPD Patients During Exacerbation

Irene Torres-Sánchez, Araceli Ortiz-Rubio, Irene Cabrera-Martos, María Granados-Santiago, Isabel López-Torres, and Marie Carmen Valenza

-related quality of life (Saint George’s Respiratory Questionnaire), 27 and respiratory function (predicted forced vital capacity [FVC%] and forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1%], spirometry). 28 In addition, previous-year PA levels and cognitive and emotional status were assessed as main outcomes. Emotional

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A Cloth Facemask Causes No Major Respiratory or Cardiovascular Perturbations During Moderate to Heavy Exercise

Natália Mendes Guardieiro, Gabriel Barreto, Felipe Miguel Marticorena, Tamires Nunes Oliveira, Luana Farias de Oliveira, Ana Lucia de Sá Pinto, Danilo Marcelo Leite do Prado, Bryan Saunders, and Bruno Gualano

The use of face masks has been deemed as one of the most effective nonpharmacological strategy to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections. 1 , 2 The recent resurgence of cases and deaths worldwide has led to some decision makers to reissue mask orders to contain the

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Aging, Respiratory Function, and Exercise

Roy J. Shephard

Aging leads to a progressive deterioration of lung function, including a decrease of vital capacity, an increase of residual volume, a tendency for the airways to collapse during expiration, enlargement of all components of the respiratory dead space, a poor mixing of inspired gas, poor matching of ventilation with perfusion, a decrease of pulmonary diffusing capacity, and a substantial increase in the work of breathing. Ventilatory demand is increased during most physical tasks, but arterial blood homeostasis is surprisingly well maintained when elderly persons undertake vigorous exercise because peak cardiac output declines in parallel with the loss of ventilatory function. However, dyspnea progressively restricts peak effort as one ages. The exercise specialist cannot restore aged or damaged pulmonary tissue but can attempt to reduce the rate of future functional loss by encouraging smoking cessation, avoiding air pollution, and controlling acute infections. Enhanced fitness, stronger skeletal muscles, and better coordination can reduce ventilatory demand. Resisted breathing exercises may also strengthen the chest muscles and allow a mechanically more efficient pattern of breathing.

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The Efficiency of Respiratory Exercises in Rehabilitation of Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Haiting Zhai, Liqing Zhang, JiXiang Xia, and Cheng Li

everyone to focus on preventing muscle weakness, maintaining the mechanical integrity of trunk muscles, and ensuring trunk stability. Breathing exercises play a significant role in achieving these goals. They help relax overworked muscles, restore normal breathing patterns, and improve respiratory muscle

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Respiratory Frequency as a Marker of Physical Effort During High-Intensity Interval Training in Soccer Players

Andrea Nicolò, Marco Montini, Michele Girardi, Francesco Felici, Ilenia Bazzucchi, and Massimo Sacchetti

effort can be measured by means of respiratory frequency ( f R ), but current evidence is limited to cycling exercise. 11 Unlike V ˙ O 2 , HR, and blood lactate concentration, f R shows a close association with RPE during high-intensity interval training (HIIT) 12 , 13 and other high

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Prediction of Upper Respiratory Illness Using Salivary Immunoglobulin A in Youth Athletes

Thomas Sawczuk, Ben Jones, Mitchell Welch, Clive Beggs, Sean Scantlebury, and Kevin Till

Consequently, in an effort to maximize youth athlete development and performance, regular monitoring of the risk of upper respiratory illness (URI) has been encouraged. 13 Despite this, only one study has evaluated the risk of URI in youth athletes, 14 as the majority of studies in the area have focused on

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Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents With Chronic Respiratory Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Rodrigo Torres-Castro, Luis Vasconcello-Castillo, Roberto Acosta-Dighero, Nicolás Sepúlveda-Cáceres, Marisol Barros-Poblete, Homero Puppo, Roberto Vera-Uribe, Jordi Vilaró, and Mario Herrera-Romero

children and adolescents with chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) differ from their healthy peers. Some authors have suggested that children and adolescents with CRDs are less physically active; 12 , 13 however, other authors have shown that there is no difference between these two groups. 14 – 16 Our