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Daniel L. Borges, Mayara Gabrielle Silva, Luan Nascimento Silva, João Vyctor Fortes, Erika Thalita Costa, Rebeca Pessoa Assunção, Carlos Magno Lima, Vinícius José da Silva Nina, Mário Bernardo-Filho, and Danúbia Sá Caputo


Physical activity is beneficial in several clinical situations and recommended for patients with ischemic heart disease, as well as for those undergoing cardiac surgery.


In a randomized controlled trial, 34 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. A randomized control group (n = 15) submitted to conventional physiotherapy. The intervention group (n = 19) received the same protocol plus additional aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer. Pulmonary function by spirometry, respiratory muscle strength by manovacuometry, and functional capacity through 6-minute walking test was assessed before surgery and at hospital discharge.


There was significant reduction in pulmonary function in both groups. In both groups, inspiratory muscle strength was maintained while expiratory muscle strength significantly decreased. Functional capacity was maintained in the intervention group (364.5 [324.5 to 428] vs. 348 [300.7 to 413.7] meters, P = .06), but it decreased significantly in control group patients (320 [288.5 to 393.0] vs. 292 [237.0 to 336.0] meters, P = .01). A significant difference in functional capacity was also found in intergroup analyses at hospital discharge (P = .03).


Aerobic exercise applied early on coronary artery bypass grafting patients may promote maintenance of functional capacity, with no impact on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength when compared with conventional physiotherapy.

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Cristiane B.B. Antonelli, Charlini S. Hartz, Sileno da Silva Santos, and Marlene A. Moreno

IMT programs by improved quality of life, pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength (RMS), and physical performance. 2 , 13 However, considering the requirements in high-performance sports, it is necessary to understand the effects of IMT on high-performance WCB athletes. Our hypothesis is

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Mark Watsford and Aron Murphy

This research examined the effects of respiratory-muscle (RM) training on RM function and exercise performance in older women. Twenty-six women (60–69 yr of age) were assessed for spirometry, RM strength (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure), inspiratory-muscle endurance, and walking performance to a perceived exertion rating of “hard.” They were randomly allocated to a threshold RM training group (RMT) or a nonexercising control group (CON) for 8 wk. After training, the 22% (inspiratory) and 30% (expiratory) improvements in RM strength in the RMT group were significantly higher than in the CON group (p < .05). The RMT group also displayed several significant performance improvements, including improved within-group treadmill performance time (12%) and reductions in submaximal heart rate (5%), percentage of maximum voluntary ventilation (16%), and perceived exertion for breathing (8%). RM training appears to improve RM function in older women. Furthermore, these improvements appear to be related to improved submaximal exercise performance.

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Bruna M.A. Saraiva, Geferson S. Araujo, Evandro F. Sperandio, Alberto O. Gotfryd, Victor Z. Dourado, and Milena C. Vidotto

of this study are to 1) evaluate the walked distance and physiological responses during ISWT in patients with different degrees of AIS compared with control group and 2) evaluate the respiratory muscle strength, pulmonary function, and its correlations with the physiological responses during ISWT

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Mark L. Watsford, Aron J. Murphy, Matthew J. Pine, and Aaron J. Coutts

Older adults’ participation in habitual exercise might be affected by alterations to respiratory mechanics such as decreased respiratory-muscle strength. This reduction can cause a decrease in efficiency of the ventilatory pump, potentially compromising exercise participation. This research examined the role of habitual exercise in respiratory-muscle function and the associated implications for exercise performance. Seventy-two healthy older adults (36 men, 64.9 ± 8.6 years, 177.2 ± 8.4 cm, 82.5 ± 11.9 kg; 36 women, 64.9 ± 9.5 years, 161.7 ± 6.4 cm, 61.6 ± 9.2 kg) undertook respiratory-function and walking-performance tests. Active men and women achieved higher scores than their inactive counterparts for all tests except spirometry, where no differences were evident. The results indicate that a significant amount of the elevated fitness level might be accounted for by increased endurance capacity of the inspiratory muscles. Inactive older individuals might be at risk for inadequate respiratory-muscle strength, so interventions should be considered.

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Amanda Faith Casey and Claudia Emes

Reduced respiratory muscle strength in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) may affect speech respiratory variables such as maximum phonation duration (MPD), initiation volume, and expired mean airflow. Researchers randomly assigned adolescents with DS (N = 28) to either 12 weeks of swim training (DS-ST) or a control group (DS-NT). Repeated measures MANOVA demonstrated a significant increase in MPD for DS-ST participants from pretest to posttest, t(11) = –3.44, p = 0.006, that was not maintained at follow-up, t(11) = 6.680, p < .001. No significant change was observed for DS-NT participants across time, F(2, 11) = 4.20, p = 0.044. The lack of long-term change in DS-ST participants may be related to the relatively short training period.

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Daniel G. Hursh, Marissa N. Baranauskas, Chad C. Wiggins, Shane Bielko, Timothy D. Mickleborough, and Robert F. Chapman

in hypoxia. 9 In theory, IMT could improve hypoxic endurance performance by attenuating the negative consequences of an increased V ˙ E at any given workload in hypoxia through improved respiratory muscle strength and endurance. In normoxia, multiple investigations have demonstrated that chronic

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Mariana B. Pinto, Patrícia M. Bock, Andressa S.O. Schein, Juliana Portes, Raíssa B. Monteiro, and Beatriz D. Schaan

). High albuminuria was defined as values over 17 mg/day ( Zelmanovitz et al., 1997 ). Participants were evaluated for the presence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (Ewing tests) ( Ewing et al., 1985 ) and underwent respiratory muscle strength, endurance testing, and pulmonary function testing

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Cátia Paixão, Ana Tavares, and Alda Marques

 al., 2007 ). Respiratory muscle strength Respiratory muscle strength, through maximal inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressures and sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP), was assessed using a respiratory pressure gauge (MicroRPM, CareFusion, Kent, United Kingdom) ( European Respiratory Society

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Patricia Rehder-Santos, Raphael M. Abreu, Étore De F. Signini, Claudio D. da Silva, Camila A. Sakaguchi, Carla C. Dato, and Aparecida M. Catai

weeks, the participants continued to carry out the training. In addition, before the beginning of the experimental protocol, all participants were familiarized with all the maneuvers and tests performed, thus avoiding the learning effect in the data collected in this study. Respiratory Muscle Strength