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Marilyn A. Roth and Jennifer S. Mindell

Background:

Use of objective physical activity measures is rising. We investigated the representativeness of survey participants who wore an accelerometer.

Methods:

4273 adults aged 16+ from a cross-sectional survey of a random, nationally representative general population sample in England in 2008 were categorized as 1) provided sufficient accelerometry data [4−7 valid days (10+ hrs/d), n = 1724], 2) less than that (n = 237), or 3) declined (n = 302). Multinomial logistic regression identified demographic, socioeconomic, health, lifestyle, and biological correlates of participants in these latter 2 groups, compared with those who provided sufficient accelerometry data (4+ valid days).

Results:

Those in the random subsample offered the accelerometer were older and more likely to be retired and to report having a longstanding limiting illness than the rest of the adult Health Survey for England participants. Compared with those providing sufficient accelerometery data, those wearing the accelerometer less were younger, less likely to be in paid employment, and more likely to be a current smoker. Those who declined to wear an accelerometer did not differ significantly from those who wore it for sufficient time.

Conclusions:

We found response bias in wearing the accelerometers for sufficient time, but refusers did not differ from those providing sufficient data. Differences should be acknowledged by data users.

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Derwin K.C. Chan, Andreas Ivarsson, Andreas Stenling, Sophie X. Yang, Nikos L.D. Chatzisarantis and Martin S. Hagger

Consistency tendency is characterized by the propensity for participants responding to subsequent items in a survey consistent with their responses to previous items. This method effect might contaminate the results of sport psychology surveys using cross-sectional design. We present a randomized controlled crossover study examining the effect of consistency tendency on the motivational pathway (i.e., autonomy support → autonomous motivation → intention) of self-determination theory in the context of sport injury prevention. Athletes from Sweden (N = 341) responded to the survey printed in either low interitem distance (IID; consistency tendency likely) or high IID (consistency tendency suppressed) on two separate occasions, with a one-week interim period. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups, and they received the survey of different IID at each occasion. Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that low IID condition had stronger parameter estimates than high IID condition, but the differences were not statistically significant.

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Jean M. Williams and Vikki Krane

Self-report measures of psychological states are commonly used in sport psychology research and practice, yet the possibility of response bias due to social desirability (repressive defensiveness) often has been overlooked. The present study was designed to examine whether or not a significant relationship exists between social desirability and competitive trait anxiety and the CSAI-2 subscales measuring state somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety, and self-confidence. The participants were 58 female collegiate golfers representing 13 NCAA Division I universities. Pearson product-moment correlations indicated that competitive trait anxiety (−.24), self-confidence (.45, .38), and cognitive anxiety (−.24) appeared to be influenced by social desirability distortion. If the present findings are replicated in future studies using the SCAT, CSAI-2, and other inventories, the field of sport psychology may need to reexamine some of the theoretical and application conclusions drawn from previous research in which no attempt was made to eliminate data from subjects who may have distorted their responses.

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Koen Put, Marcus V.C. Baldo, André M. Cravo, Johan Wagemans and Werner F. Helsen

In association football, the flash-lag effect appears to be a viable explanation for erroneous offside decision making. Due to this spatiotemporal illusion, assistant referees (ARs) perceive the player who receives the ball ahead of his real position. In this experiment, a laboratory decision-making task was used to demonstrate that international top-class ARs, compared with amateur soccer players, do not have superior perceptual sensitivity. They clearly modify their decision criterion according to the contextual needs and, therefore, show a higher response bias toward not responding to the stimulus, in particular in the most difficult situations. Thus, international ARs show evidence for response-level compensation, resulting in a specific cost (i.e., more misses), which clearly reflects the use of particular (cognitive) strategies. In summary, it appears that experts in offside decision making can be distinguished from novices more on the cognitive or decision-making level than on the perceptual level.

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Robert F. Potter and Justin Robert Keene

An experiment investigates the impact of fan identification on the cognitive and emotional processing of sports-related news media. Two coaches were featured; one conceptualized as negatively valenced the other positively. Participants completed a fan identification scale before stimuli presentation. While watching the press conferences, heart rate, skin conductance, and corrugator muscle activity were recorded as indices of cognitive resource allocation, emotional arousal, and aversive motivation activation respectively. Self-report measures were collected after each stimulus. Results show that highly identified fans process sports-related news content differently than moderate fans, allocating more cognitive resources and exhibiting greater aversive reactions to the negatively valenced coach. Comparisons between the self-report and psychophysiology data suggest that the latter may be less susceptible to social desirability response bias when emotional reaction to sports messages are concerned.

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Rebecca Robertson, Laura St. Germain and Diane M. Ste-Marie

identifying an error for key elements performed correctly. Scores from these four categories generate two measures; sensitivity (d’) and response bias (C). Sensitivity is calculated by the difference between the means of the two distributions (hit rate and false alarm rate). A higher d’ reflects a better

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Robin S. Vealey, Robin Cooley, Emma Nilsson, Carly Block and Nick Galli

via conversation Threatening to athlete; makes athlete suspicious   Creates clinical stigma Appears too “clinical” to athletes   Disliked by athletes Athletes hate paperwork and don’t see the value or point   Response bias – social desirability Unwilling to self-disclose; athletes not honest and

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Brian J. Foster and Graig M. Chow

 al. ( 2016 ), where their approach was selected in order to minimize response biases. To adapt items, five doctoral students and one professor from a sport psychology graduate program at a university in the Southeastern United States evaluated each of the new items based on the recommended protocol offered

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Vellapandian Ponnusamy, Michelle Guerrero and Jeffrey J. Martin

. , Dieffenbach , K. , & Moffett , A. ( 2002 ). Psychological characteristics and their development in Olympic champions . Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14 , 172 – 204 . 10.1080/10413200290103482 Grimm , S.D. , & Church , T. ( 1999 ). A cross-cultural study of response biases in personality

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Dahai Yu, Ying Chen, Tao Chen, Yamei Cai, Rui Qin, Zhixin Jiang and Zhanzheng Zhao

excluded participants with obviously reduced kidney function generated the same results. Second, data from questionnaire (self-reported records) can be biased due to many reasons, such as response bias. However, thanks to the high response rate, such systematic error was not likely to be large. Although