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Ryan Holding, Rudi Meir and Shi Zhou

The purpose of this study was to examine whether a video-based warm-up could provide an acute performance benefit to response time for athletes in a sport-specific agility task. In addition, 2 learning strategies, explicit and implicit, were compared for their effectiveness in facilitating an improvement in sport-specific agility. Thirty representative male junior rugby union players (age 14–16 y, mean age 14.6 ± 1.09 y) were placed in 3 experimental groups (explicit, implicit, and control) and completed 2 intervention sessions. Testing sessions included preintervention testing, completion of the video-based warm-up intervention, and postintervention testing. A 3D motion-analysis system was used to assess response time in the testing battery. The athletes’ response times on the pre- to postintervention tests were compared to determine the effectiveness of the video-based warm-up. A 2-way general linear model with repeated-measures analysis indicated that both the explicit (P = .030, d = 0.28) and implicit (P = .049, d = 0.33) groups significantly improved their response time by the intervention compared with the control group (P = .367, d = 0.08). The mean postintervention response time for the explicit group improved by 19.1% (from 0.246 s pre to 0.199 s post), and the implicit group improved by 15.7% (from 0.268 s to 0.226 s). Findings suggest that a video-based warm-up may provide an acute benefit to sport-specific agility performance for junior athletes.

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Nancy C. Rich

There are an abundant number of published studies in which the authors state that post-pubertal men are stronger, faster and more powerful and therefore more proficient than women in many motor skills. The topics of strength and neuromuscular response time are phenomena that have been used in the past as bases for the rationalization that women do not have the physical characteristics that are essential requirements for front-line work as soldiers, firepersons, police officers and construction workers, and also that they are not as proficient as men in other occupations. This paper is a review of physiological and performance data that have contributed to our knowledge base in the areas of strength and neuromuscular response times of women. In addition, data regarding the deterioration of these parameters that occur with aging and the potential determent of this deterioration as a consequence of a lifetime of activity will be considered. Finally, a suggestion will be made that female and male data should be analyzed and reported in ways that eliminate genetic characteristics which bias the data.

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Scott J. Pedersen, Paul R. Surburg, Matthew Heath and David M. Koceja

The purpose was to investigate central and peripheral processing mechanisms through the use of electromyography (EMG) to determine differences between the performance of children with and without ADHD on a lower extremity choice response time task. Sixteen children with ADHD were tested on and off medication along with 19 children without ADHD. For premotor time, the comparison group performed significantly faster than children with ADHD. The longer latencies exhibited in central processing of children with ADHD were related to midline crossing inhibition (MCI). Medication improved the speed of processing for children with ADHD, but did not negate MCI.

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Jennifer L. Etnier, Benjamin A. Sibley, Jeremy Pomeroy and James C. Kao

Research suggests that there are differences in response time (RespT) as a function of age but that aerobic fitness might have a facilitatory effect on RespT. This study was designed to examine this relationship while addressing methodological issues from past research. Men from 3 age groups completed speeded tasks, a physical activity questionnaire, and an aerobic-fitness test. Results indicated that age has a negative impact on RespT (specifically premotor time and movement time). The interaction of aerobic fitness by age was also a significant predictor of RespT (specifically movement time) such that aerobic fitness was positively related to speed of performance for older participants. It is concluded that aerobic fitness might serve a preservative function for speeded tasks in older adults.

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Breanna E. Studenka and Kodey Myers

participant should react, and we decided to rename our RT variable to response time to more accurately reflect the outcome collected. For the condition that required hammering with the dowel rod, the experimenter said, “Help me hammer with the black/white/red end.” The color for hammering was consistent

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Robert L. Eason, Jeffrey E. Brandon, Theresa L. Smith and Denise C. Serpas

The purposes of this study were to determine if three medically diagnosed hyperactive males could be taught to relax using a modified version of Behavioral Relaxation Training (BRT), as confirmed by frontalis electromyographic (EMG) data and by Poppen’s Behavioral Relaxation Scale (BRS), and to determine if a relaxed state is more optimal for performing attention-demanding motor tasks. After obtaining baseline data for relaxation and reaction/response time variables, subjects received six to eight sessions of BRT, followed by posttesting and a 1-month follow-up. Results indicated large reductions in BRS scores, EMG reductions in two of the three subjects, and reductions in reaction/response time. The results supported the use of relaxation training for facilitating information processing.

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Jack D. Ade, Jamie A. Harley and Paul S. Bradley


To quantify the physiological responses, time–motion characteristics, and reproducibility of various speed-endurance-production (SEP) and speed-endurance-maintenance (SEM) drills.


Sixteen elite male youth soccer players completed 4 drills: SEP 1 v 1 small-sided game (SSG), SEP running drill, SEM 2 v 2 SSG, and SEM running drill. Heart-rate response, blood lactate concentration, subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and time–motion characteristics were recorded for each drill.


The SEP and SEM running drills elicited greater (P < .05) heart-rate responses, blood lactate concentrations, and RPE than the respective SSGs (ES 1.1–1.4 and 1.0–3.2). Players covered less (P < .01) total distance and high-intensity distance in the SEP and SEM SSGs than in the respective running drills (ES 6.0–22.1 and 3.0–18.4). Greater distances (P < .01) were covered in high to maximum acceleration/deceleration bands during the SEP and SEM SSGs than the respective running drills (ES 2.6–4.6 and 2.3–4.8). The SEP SSG and generic running protocols produced greater (P < .05) blood lactate concentrations than the respective SEM protocols (ES 1.2–1.7). Small to moderate test–retest variability was observed for heart-rate response (CV 0.9–1.9%), RPE (CV 2.9–5.7%), and blood lactate concentration (CV 9.9–14.4%); moderate to large test–retest variability was observed for high-intensity-running parameters (CV > 11.3%) and the majority of accelerations/deceleration distances (CV > 9.8%) for each drill.


The data demonstrate the potential to tax the anaerobic energy system to different extents using speed-endurance SSGs and that SSGs elicit greater acceleration/deceleration load than generic running drills.

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Kirsty Brock, Prokopios Antonellis, Matthew I. Black, Fred J. DiMenna, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M. Jones and Stephen J. Bailey

, a single-exponential model without time delay with the fitting window commencing at t  = 0 second (equivalent to the mean response time, MRT) was used to characterize the kinetics of the overall V ˙ O 2 response during the trials as described in the following equation: V ˙ O 2 ( t ) = V ˙ O 2

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Bettina Karsten, Jonathan Baker, Fernando Naclerio, Andreas Klose, Antonino Bianco and Alfred Nimmerichter

filtered data were linearly interpolated to 1 second and time-aligned to the start of exercise. 16 A nonlinear least-square algorithm was used to calculate the mean response time (MRT), with the fitting window constrained from the onset of exercise ( t  = 0) to 2 minutes of exercise (ie, minimum completion

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Erwan Leclair, Delphine Thevenet, Sophie C. Reguem, Benoit Borel, Georges Baquet, Serge Berthoin and Patrick Mucci

This study was designed to test the reproducibility of muscle oxygenation by NIRS in children during exercise. Twelve healthy non-obese and non-trained children performed one maximal graded test, and four 6-min constant load cycle exercises. Deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb/Mb-H+) data were averaged every 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30s. Hb/Mb-H+ data averaged every 5, 10, 20 and 30s showed good reproducibility. When averaged every second, Hb/Mb-H+ values were reproducible after the first minute of exercise. Based on 1s averaged signal modeling, time period and t values for Hb/Mb-H+ were not reproducible but mean response time values showed an acceptable reproducibility.