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Leonie Oostwoud Wijdenes, Eli Brenner, and Jeroen B.J. Smeets

This study set out to determine whether the fastest online hand movement corrections are only responses to changing judgments of the targets’ position or whether they are also influenced by the apparent target motion. Introducing a gap between when a target disappears and when it reappears at a new position in a double-step paradigm disrupts the apparent motion, so we examined the influence of such a gap on the intensity of the response. We found that responses to target perturbations with disrupted apparent motion were less vigorous. The response latency was 10 ms shorter when there was a gap, which might be related to the gap effect that has previously been described for initiating eye and hand movements.

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Frank F. Eves and Roberta Hoppé

Expectancy-value models of attitudes include belief statements about associated outcomes, with salient, accessible beliefs most important. This article reports two studies testing automatic accessibility of outcomes for physical activities using response latencies. A behavior presented by computer was followed 500 ms later by an outcome, such as more fit. Participants decided as quickly as possible whether the outcome was likely or unlikely (720 trials). We predicted shorter response latencies for accessible beliefs. Use of positive and negative outcomes (Study 1) produced a paradoxical slowing of response indicating deliberative processing. With only positive poles (Study 2), faster responses occurred for a priori links consistent with enhanced accessibility; some outcomes were accessible for some activities. Comparisons between explicitly reported beliefs and these implicit measures of accessibility revealed differences between the two measures. Discussion focuses on two possible routes to enhanced accessibility of attitudes, namely an explicit, cognitive process and an implicit, experiential process.

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Adam C. Knight and Wendi H. Weimar

Context:

The latency of the peroneus longus in response to an inversion perturbation is a key component in the prevention of lateral ankle sprains. In addition, the dominant ankle is sprained more frequently than the nondominant ankle, but the cause of this has not been examined.

Objective:

To investigate the combination of these 2 research-supported statements, the purpose of this study was to use an inversion perturbation that replicates the mechanism of a lateral ankle sprain to determine whether there is a difference in the latency of the peroneus longus between the dominant and nondominant legs.

Design:

Repeated-measures single-group design.

Setting:

University laboratory.

Participants:

15 physically active healthy volunteers with no previous history of an ankle sprain or lower extremity surgery or fracture.

Interventions:

Outer sole with fulcrum was used to cause 25° of inversion at the subtalar joint on landing from a 27-cm step-down task. Participants performed 10 trials on both the dominant and nondominant leg.

Main Outcome Measures:

2 latency measures of the peroneus longus of both the dominant and nondominant leg, calculated as the amount of time from the moment of touchdown of the fulcrum until muscle activity exceeded 5 and 10 SD above baseline muscle activity.

Results:

The latency of the peroneus longus of the nondominant leg was significantly shorter when using both 5 SD (F 1,14 = 9.34, P = .009, d = .895) and 10 SD (F 1,14 = 18.56, P = .001, d = .920) above baseline muscle activity.

Conclusions:

This difference in latency may be a result of the different demands placed on the dominant and nondominant legs during activity and may predispose the dominant ankle to a greater number of ankle sprains than the nondominant ankle.

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Samuele Contemori and Andrea Biscarini

muscles (UT/MT, UT/LT, MT/LT, and UT/SA activity ratios), and analyze the muscles response latency. Materials and Methods Design A cross-sectional design was used. Participants Twelve professional volleyball players with infraspinatus denervation diagnosed by evident infraspinatus atrophy and fine wire

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Tanya R. Berry

No research exists that examines attentional bias for exercise related stimuli, yet this is an important area as it is possible that nonexercisers are not paying attention to exercise related cues, thereby limiting the potential effectiveness of health promotion advertising. This research used a Stroop task to examine attentional bias for exercise and sedentary-lifestyle related stimuli. Experiment 1 included exercise related words and matched control words and revealed that exerciser schematics showed delayed response latencies for exercise related words. Experiment 2 expanded on Experiment 1 by further including sedentary-lifestyle related words and matched control words. Results replicated the first study and further revealed that nonexerciser schematics showed delayed response latencies for sedentary-lifestyle related words but not for exercise related words. Results are discussed in terms of attentional bias or the possibility of a threat-driven slowdown, and in relation to health promotion and exercise behavior.

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Robert L. Sainburg and Pratik K. Mutha

The target article (Smeets, Oostwoud Wijdenes, & Brenner, 2016) proposes that short latency responses to changes in target location during reaching reflect an unconscious, continuous, and incremental minimization of the distance between the hand and the target, which does not require detection of the change in target location. We, instead, propose that short-latency visuomotor responses invoke reflex- or startle-like mechanisms, an idea supported by evidence that such responses are both automatic and resistant to cognitive influences. In addition, the target article fails to address the biological underpinnings for the range of response latencies reported across the literature, including the circuits that might underlie the proposed sensorimotor loops. When considering the range of latencies reported in the literature, we propose that mechanisms grounded in neurophysiology should be more informative than the simple information processing perspective adopted by the target article.

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Denis Brunt, Charles S. Layne, Melissa Cook, and Linda Rowe

This paper describes automatic postural responses of deaf children during anterior body sway. Subjects were placed in a vestibular dysfunction (VDD) or vestibular nondysfunction (VNDD) group based on postrotary nystagmus response. They stood on an electrically driven platform, and brief support surface movement (12 cm/sec) elicited automatic postural responses under both static and dynamic conditions. Subjects underwent trials with and without vision, and electromyographical (EMG) data was recorded from posterior leg muscles. Both groups displayed some response characteristics found in previous reports (Nashner & Cordo, 1981), and under dynamic conditions the response latencies significantly decreased. However, the major finding was the response delay of some 40 msec by VDD subjects. It was proposed that this delay could in part be responsible for balance and movement problems exhibited by many deaf children.

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Adam C. Knight and Wendi H. Weimar

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of different types of ankle sprains on the response latency of the peroneus longus and peroneus brevis to an inversion perturbation, as well as the time to complete the perturbation (time to maximum inversion). To create a forced inversion moment of the ankle, an outer sole with fulcrum was used to cause 25 degrees of inversion at the ankle upon landing from a 27 cm step-down task. Forty participants completed the study: 15 participants had no history of any ankle sprain, 15 participants had a history of a lateral ankle sprain, and 10 participants had a history of a high ankle sprain. There was not a significant difference between the injury groups for the latency measurements or the time to maximum inversion. These findings indicate that a previous lateral ankle sprain or high ankle sprain does not affect the latency of the peroneal muscles or the time to complete the inversion range of motion.

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Avelina C. Padin, Charles F. Emery, Michael Vasey, and Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser

transformed to correct for skew ( Greenwald et al., 1998 ; Olson & Fazio, 2004 ). Although the traditional D-score algorithm does not include log-transformed response latencies, prior research using the personalized IAT includes log transformation of all response latencies prior to D-score calculation

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Tayo Moss, Stephen Samendinger, Norbert L. Kerr, Joseph Cesario, Alan L. Smith, Deborah J. Johnson, and Deborah L. Feltz

the average response latencies of the contrasted conditions (e.g., Black with strong/White with weak; White with strong/Black with weak) divided by the SD of response latencies across the conditions (distinct from the pooled within-conditions SD ). As Greenwald et al. note, D is functionally an