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Sara B. Flory, Rebecca C. Wylie, and Craigory V. Nieman

preparation programs ( Ovens et al., 2018 ; Walton-Fisette et al., 2018 ). These factors prompted us to evaluate a PETE program where students had courses, teaching experiences, and assignments that specifically addressed issues of social justice and culturally responsive teaching (CRT). The purpose of this

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Sara B. Flory, Craigory V. Nieman, and Rebecca C. Wylie

factors, we were interested in evaluating a PETE program where issues of social justice and culturally responsive teaching (CRT) were intentionally addressed to students within courses, clinical experiences, and assignments. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine CRT self-efficacy and the

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Mary O. Whipple, Erica N. Schorr, Kristine M.C. Talley, Ruth Lindquist, Ulf G. Bronas, and Diane Treat-Jacobson

Supervised treadmill walking and stationary cycling VO 2peak Earnest et al., 2010 (DREW) To examine the effect of age on VO 2peak responsiveness. Four-arm RCT (three volumes of exercise training, control), 464/251, 6 months Age: 58.3 (6.3) Sex: 100% female Postmenopausal, sedentary, overweight

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Cigdem Ayhan Kuru, Ozgun Uysal, Nur Banu Karaca, Zeliha Akar, Egemen Ayhan, and Ilhami Kuru

on the amount of change that is meaningful is warranted. Responsiveness is a key psychometric property when the aim is to detect and measure longitudinal change in a specific patient population. 8 This is often presented in clinical studies aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a conservative or

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Lachlan J.G. Mitchell, Ben Rattray, Paul Wu, Philo U. Saunders, and David B. Pyne

change far exceeds the measurement error. To quantify this relationship in medical literature, a value known as responsiveness is used. 16 Responsiveness indicates how effectively a test can detect changes over time. It is unknown whether a 12 × 25-m test in swimmers is responsive enough to quantify

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Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Jefferson Rodrigues Dorneles, Guilherme Henrique Lopes, José Irineu Gorla, and Frederico Ribeiro Neto

smallest worthwhile change (SWC) is a metric used to determine the smallest difference that can lead to a meaningful change in the performance of an individual or team sport. 6 In this way, the present study aimed to test the MBT responsiveness to detect meaningful changes after WB training sessions in

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Craig Donnachie, Kate Hunt, Nanette Mutrie, Jason M.R. Gill, and Paul Kelly

; Troiano, McClain, Brychta, & Chen, 2014 ). Despite a growing number of intervention studies incorporating device-based and/or self-report measures of PA, there is a lack of research examining the (comparative) responsiveness of these measures to detect PA behavior change over time as distinct PA

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Franco M. Impellizzeri and Samuele M. Marcora

We propose that physiological and performance tests used in sport science research and professional practice should be developed following a rigorous validation process, as is done in other scientific fields, such as clinimetrics, an area of research that focuses on the quality of clinical measurement and uses methods derived from psychometrics. In this commentary, we briefly review some of the attributes that must be explored when validating a test: the conceptual model, validity, reliability, and responsiveness. Examples from the sport science literature are provided.

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David Collins, Bruce Hale, and Joe Loomis

Studies of sport participation that include emotional responses, particularly anger, are frequently flawed because measures consist of associative paper–pencil inventories and archival data. In the present study, startle response (an aversive reflex) was enhanced during an unpleasant emotional state and diminished in a pleasant emotional context. Nonsignificant differences on this dispositional measure between 36 athletes and nonathletes did not replicate findings differing normals and psychopaths (Patrick, Bradley, & Lang, 1993) on emotional responsivity. Similarity was also apparent in experiential aspects of anger responsivity as revealed by the check for differences in attributional style. No significant intergroup differences were found in participants’ responses to realistic situations (termed vignettes), in evaluation of the anger/provocation inherent in the situation, in the reasons attributed to the “frustrater,” or in self-reported intended response. Implications for future sport research on emotional responsivity, anger and aggressive behavior are discussed.

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Winnie Y.H. Lee, Bronwyn K. Clark, Elisabeth Winkler, Elizabeth G. Eakin, and Marina M. Reeves

Background:

This study evaluated the responsiveness to change in physical activity of 2 self-report measures and an accelerometer in the context of a weight loss intervention trial.

Methods:

302 participants (aged 20 to 75 years) with type 2 diabetes were randomized into telephone counseling (n = 151) or usual care (n = 151) groups. Physical activity (minutes/week) was assessed at baseline and 6-months using the Active Australia Survey (AAS), the United States National Health Interview Survey (USNHIS) walking for exercise items, and accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M; ≥1952 counts/minute). Responsiveness to change was calculated as responsiveness index (RI), Cohen’s d (postscores) and Cohen’s d (change-scores).

Results:

All instruments showed significant improvement in the intervention group (P < .001) and no significant change for usual care (P > .05). Accelerometer consistently ranked as the most responsive instrument while the least responsive was the USHNIS (responsiveness index) or AAS (Cohen’s d). RIs for AAS, USNHIS and accelerometer did not differ significantly and were, respectively: 0.45 (95% CI: 0.26–0.65); 0.38 (95% CI: 0.20–0.56); and, 0.49 (95% CI: 0.23–0.74).

Conclusions:

Accelerometer tended to have the highest responsiveness but differences were small and not statistically significant. Consideration of factors, such as validity, feasibility and cost, in addition to responsiveness, is important for instrument selection in future trials