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Lachlan J.G. Mitchell, Ben Rattray, Paul Wu, Philo U. Saunders and David B. Pyne

change far exceeds the measurement error. To quantify this relationship in medical literature, a value known as responsiveness is used. 16 Responsiveness indicates how effectively a test can detect changes over time. It is unknown whether a 12 × 25-m test in swimmers is responsive enough to quantify

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Craig Donnachie, Kate Hunt, Nanette Mutrie, Jason M.R. Gill and Paul Kelly

; Troiano, McClain, Brychta, & Chen, 2014 ). Despite a growing number of intervention studies incorporating device-based and/or self-report measures of PA, there is a lack of research examining the (comparative) responsiveness of these measures to detect PA behavior change over time as distinct PA

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Mary O. Whipple, Erica N. Schorr, Kristine M.C. Talley, Ruth Lindquist, Ulf G. Bronas and Diane Treat-Jacobson

Supervised treadmill walking and stationary cycling VO 2peak Earnest et al., 2010 (DREW) To examine the effect of age on VO 2peak responsiveness. Four-arm RCT (three volumes of exercise training, control), 464/251, 6 months Age: 58.3 (6.3) Sex: 100% female Postmenopausal, sedentary, overweight

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David Collins, Bruce Hale and Joe Loomis

Studies of sport participation that include emotional responses, particularly anger, are frequently flawed because measures consist of associative paper–pencil inventories and archival data. In the present study, startle response (an aversive reflex) was enhanced during an unpleasant emotional state and diminished in a pleasant emotional context. Nonsignificant differences on this dispositional measure between 36 athletes and nonathletes did not replicate findings differing normals and psychopaths (Patrick, Bradley, & Lang, 1993) on emotional responsivity. Similarity was also apparent in experiential aspects of anger responsivity as revealed by the check for differences in attributional style. No significant intergroup differences were found in participants’ responses to realistic situations (termed vignettes), in evaluation of the anger/provocation inherent in the situation, in the reasons attributed to the “frustrater,” or in self-reported intended response. Implications for future sport research on emotional responsivity, anger and aggressive behavior are discussed.

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Melanie L. Sartore-Baldwin and Matthew Walker

Despite anecdotal claims attesting to the influence that social responsiveness has on the purchase behaviors of consumers, this article examined if a specific initiative could result in such outcomes. We investigated the extent to which the Drive for Diversity (D4D) initiative affected consumers’ perceived image and patronage directed toward NASCAR. This study was partially motivated by the importance of social initiatives in practice to underscore their influence on customer-related outcomes. As such, the findings indicated that the NASCAR’s D4D and the perceived image of the organization are key variables in the model. The results also highlighted the mediating role of image and the moderating role of identification on the proposed relationship. More specifically, the authors found that the socially responsive initiative only moderately influenced consumers’ intentions but when coupled with the image of the organization, this relationship became far more impactful.

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Franco M. Impellizzeri and Samuele M. Marcora

We propose that physiological and performance tests used in sport science research and professional practice should be developed following a rigorous validation process, as is done in other scientific fields, such as clinimetrics, an area of research that focuses on the quality of clinical measurement and uses methods derived from psychometrics. In this commentary, we briefly review some of the attributes that must be explored when validating a test: the conceptual model, validity, reliability, and responsiveness. Examples from the sport science literature are provided.

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Winnie Y.H. Lee, Bronwyn K. Clark, Elisabeth Winkler, Elizabeth G. Eakin and Marina M. Reeves

Background:

This study evaluated the responsiveness to change in physical activity of 2 self-report measures and an accelerometer in the context of a weight loss intervention trial.

Methods:

302 participants (aged 20 to 75 years) with type 2 diabetes were randomized into telephone counseling (n = 151) or usual care (n = 151) groups. Physical activity (minutes/week) was assessed at baseline and 6-months using the Active Australia Survey (AAS), the United States National Health Interview Survey (USNHIS) walking for exercise items, and accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M; ≥1952 counts/minute). Responsiveness to change was calculated as responsiveness index (RI), Cohen’s d (postscores) and Cohen’s d (change-scores).

Results:

All instruments showed significant improvement in the intervention group (P < .001) and no significant change for usual care (P > .05). Accelerometer consistently ranked as the most responsive instrument while the least responsive was the USHNIS (responsiveness index) or AAS (Cohen’s d). RIs for AAS, USNHIS and accelerometer did not differ significantly and were, respectively: 0.45 (95% CI: 0.26–0.65); 0.38 (95% CI: 0.20–0.56); and, 0.49 (95% CI: 0.23–0.74).

Conclusions:

Accelerometer tended to have the highest responsiveness but differences were small and not statistically significant. Consideration of factors, such as validity, feasibility and cost, in addition to responsiveness, is important for instrument selection in future trials

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Leanne Norman

The purpose of this paper is to explore current research evidence to understand whether and how gender influences the coach-athlete relationship. Considering the importance of coach-athlete relationships, the field still remains under researched and the influences on this relationship require greater examination. Coach-athlete exchanges are shaped by assumptions and ideas about coaching and teaching relationships. Interactions are complex because sport makes a number of (at times competing) demands on participants. Varying individual characteristics increase this complexity. Yet within this multifaceted context, gender relations appear constant and problematic, particularly with respect to coaching. Evidence suggests that while male and female athletes share many similarities in what they want and prefer in terms of their coaching needs and expectations, there are specific nuances and differences that must be understood to facilitate an effective relationship. Furthermore, the evidence also suggests that male coaches, unwittingly, play a role in the perpetuation of the stereotype of women as the less able, less competitive and frailer athlete. These findings evidence the need to include a greater focus on gender-responsive coaching. The paper also highlights different coaching styles that may facilitate working with male and female athletes and emphasises the need for coaches to become relational experts to empower their athletes.

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Lori A. Michener, Alison R. Snyder and Brian G. Leggin

Context:

The Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) is commonly used to assess pain. Change in the NPRS across time can be interpreted with responsiveness indices.

Objective:

To determine the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of the NPRS.

Design:

Single-group repeated measures.

Setting:

Outpatient rehabilitation clinics.

Patients:

Patients with shoulder pain (N = 136).

Main Outcome Measures:

At the initial evaluation patients completed the Penn Shoulder Score (PSS), which includes pain, satisfaction, and function sections. Pain was measured using an 11-point NPRS for 3 conditions of pain: at rest, with normal daily activities, and with strenuous activities. The NPRS average was calculated by averaging the NPRS scores for 3 conditions of pain. The final PSS was completed after 3–4 wk of rehabilitation. To determine the MCID for the NPRS average, the minimal detectible change of 8.6 points for the PSS function scale (0–60 points) was used as an external criterion anchor to classify patients as meaningfully improved (≥8.6 point change) or not improved (<8.6-point change). The MCID for the NPRS average was also determined for subgroups of surgical and nonsurgical patients. Cohen’s effect sizes were calculated as a measure of group responsiveness for the NPRS average.

Results:

Using a receiver-operating-characteristic analysis, the MCID for the average NPRS for all patients was 2.17, and it was 2.17 for both the surgical and nonsurgical subgroup: area-under-the-curve range .74–.76 (95%CI: .55–.95). The effect size for all patients was 1.84, and it was 1.51 and 1.94 for the surgical and nonsurgical groups, respectively.

Conclusions:

The NPRS average of 3 pain questions demonstrated responsiveness with an MCID of 2.17 in patients with shoulder pain receiving rehabilitation for 3–4 wk. The effect sizes indicated a large effect. However, responsiveness values are not static. Further research is indicated to assess responsiveness of the NPRS average in different types of patients with shoulder pain.

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Geraldine Naughton, David Greene, Daniel Courteix and Adam Baxter-Jones

dedicated collectively to understanding the responsiveness of bone to exercise in children and youth. Authors from around the globe have presented opinions, reviews, follow-up studies, as well as describing a variety of measures and means to analyze bone responses to exercise during the first 2 decades of