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William R. Holcomb, Mack D. Rubley, Michael G. Miller and Tedd J. Girouard

Context:

Previous studies using neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) have suggested that 30-second rest intervals are too short for sufficient recovery.

Objective:

To compare the effect of rest interval on knee-extension torque production.

Design:

Counterbalanced mixed design to test independent variable, rest interval; ANOVA to analyze dependent variable, percentage decline.

Setting:

Athletic training research laboratory.

Participants:

24 healthy men and women.

Intervention:

Participants performed knee extension under 2 contraction conditions, maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and NMES with either 30- or 120-second rest between repetitions.

Main Outcome Measure:

Peak torque produced during each repetition of a 5-repetition set.

Results:

The main effect for rest interval was significant (F 1,23 = 30.30, P = .001), as was the main effect for condition (F 1,23 = 11.18, P = .003).

Conclusions:

A 120-second rest between repetitions is recommended when using NMES in early rehabilitation because force decline across repetitions with 30-second rest during NMES is greater than with MVIC.

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Martim Bottaro, Lee E. Brown, Rodrigo Celes, Saulo Martorelli, Rodrigo Carregaro and José Carlos de Brito Vidal

The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of different rest intervals and contraction velocities on muscle recovery following resistance exercise. 18 children (11.1 ± 0.52 yrs) and 19 adolescents (15.8 ± 0.49 yrs) performed three sets of 10 isokinetic repetitions at 60°/s and 180°/s. The work-to-rest ratio (W/R) was 1:2 and 1:4 for 60°/s, and 1:6 and 1:12 for 180°/s. ANOVA revealed that children demonstrated no significant decline in PT from the first to third set with any rest interval, but there was a significant (p < .05) decline for adolescents when a W/R of 1:2, 1:4 and 1:6 were used. Adolescents demonstrated significantly greater blood lactate (BLa) concentrations than children after three sets of resistance exercise. The present study indicates that adolescents may require longer rest intervals to recover full PT when compared with children.

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Sandro R. Freitas, João R. Vaz, Paula M. Bruno, Maria João Valamatos, Ricardo J. Andrade and Pedro Mil-Homens

Static stretching with rest between repetitions is often performed to acutely increase joint flexibility.

Purpose:

To test the effects of the lack of resting between stretching repetitions and the minimal number of stretching repetitions required to change the maximal range of motion (ROM), maximal tolerated joint passive torque (MPT), and submaximal passive torque at a given angle (PT).

Methods:

Five static stretching repetitions with a 30-s rest-interval (RI) and a no-rest-interval (NRI) stretching protocol were compared. Participants (N = 47) were encouraged to perform the maximal ROM without pain in all the repetitions. Each repetition lasted 90 s. Maximal ROM, MPT, PT, and muscle activity were compared between protocols for the same number of stretching repetitions.

Results:

The NRI produced a higher increase in maximal ROM and MPT during and after stretching (P < .05). PT decreased in both protocols, although the NRI tended to have a lower decrement across different submaximal angles (.05 < P < .08) in the initial range of the torque-angle curve. Significant changes in maximal ROM (P < .01) and PT (P < .01) were obtained at the 3rd and 2nd repetitions of RI, respectively. The RI did not significantly increase the MPT (P = .12) after stretching; only the NRI did (P < .01).

Conclusions:

Lack of rest between repetitions more efficiently increased the maximal ROM and capacity to tolerate PT during and after stretching. The use of 30 s rest between repetitions potentiates the decrease in PT. Rest intervals should not be used if the aim is to acutely increase maximal ROM and peak passive torque.

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Steven R. McAnulty, Lisa S. McAnulty, Jason D. Morrow, David C. Nieman, John T. Owens and Cristin M. Carper

This study compared effects of carbohydrate (CHO) and rest on oxidative stress during exercise. Cyclists (N = 12) completed 4 randomized trials at 64% Wattsmax under 2 conditions (continuous cycling for 2 h [C] and cycling with 3-min rest every 10 min for 2.6 h [R]). Subjects cycled under each condition while receiving 6% CHO and placebo (PLA). CHO and PLA were given pre exercise (12 mL/kg) and during exercise (4 mL·kg−1·15 min−1). Blood was collected pre exercise, post exercise, and 1 h post exercise and assayed for F2-isoprostanes, hydroperoxides (LH), nitrite, antioxidant capacity, glucose, insulin, cortisol, and epinephrine. F2-isoprostanes and LH were lower in CHO. Glucose, cortisol, and epinephrine exhibited significant effects, with post exercise levels of glucose higher and cortisol and epinephrine lower in CHO during the R condition. This pattern was identical in the C condition (21). Oxidative stress during cycling was unaffected by use of short rest intervals but was diminished by CHO.

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Konstantinos Sotiropoulos, Ilias Smilios, Helen Douda, Marios Christou and Savvas P. Tokmakidis

Purpose:

This study examined the effect of rest interval after the execution of a jump-squat set with varied external mechanical-power outputs on repeated-jump (RJ) height, mechanical power, and electromyographic (EMG) activity.

Methods:

Twelve male volleyball players executed 6 RJs before and 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 min after the execution of 6 repetitions of jump squats with a load: maximized mechanical-power output (Pmax), 70% of Pmax, 130% of Pmax, and control, without extra load.

Results:

RJ height did not change (P = .44) after the jump squats, mechanical power was higher (P = .02) 5 min after the 130%Pmax protocol, and EMG activity was higher (P = .001) after all exercise protocols compared with control. Irrespective of the time point, however, when the highest RJ set for each individual was analyzed, height, mechanical power, and EMG activity were higher (P = .001–.04) after all loading protocols compared with control, with no differences observed (P = .53–.72) among loads.

Conclusions:

Rest duration for a contrast-training session should be individually determined regardless of the load and mechanical-power output used to activate the neuromuscular system. The load that maximizes external mechanical-power output compared with a heavier or a lighter load, using the jump-squat exercise, is not more effective for increasing jumping performance afterward.

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Avery D. Faigenbaum, Nicholas A. Ratamess, Jim McFarland, Jon Kaczmarek, Michael J. Coraggio, Jie Kang and Jay R. Hoffman

The purpose of this study was to assess the lifting performance of boys (N = 12; age 11.3 ± 0.8 yr), teens (N = 13; age 13.6 ± 0.6 yr), and men (N = 17; age 21.4 ± 2.1 yr) to various rest interval (RI) lengths on the bench press exercise. Each subject performed 3 sets with a 10 repetition maximum load and a 1, 2, and 3 min RI between sets. Significant differences in lifting performance between age groups were observed within each RI for selected sets with boys and teens performing significantly more total repetitions than adults following protocols with 1 min (27.9 ± 3.1, 26.9 ± 3.9, and 18.2 ± 4.1, respectively), 2 min (29.6 ± 1.0, 27.8 ± 3.5, and 21.4 ± 4.1, respectively) and 3 min (30.0 ± 0.0, 28.8 ± 2.4, and 23.9 ± 5.3, respectively) RIs. Significant differences in average velocity and average power between age groups were also observed. These findings indicate that boys and teens are better able to maintain muscle performance during intermittent moderate-intensity resistance exercise as compared with men.

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Renato Evangelista, Rafael Pereira, Anthony C. Hackney and Marco Machado

Purpose:

To compare differences between two different rest interval lengths between sets on the volume completed, muscle damage and muscle soreness during a resistance exercise bout.

Methods:

Twenty-eight healthy sedentary men (18 ± 1 y old) volunteered to participate in this study and were divided into the 1 min (1RI; n = 14) or 3 min (3RI; n = 14) rest interval length between sets. They were submitted to maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength (MVC) and then performed a resistance exercise protocol constituted for three sets of biceps curl at 40% of MVC with 1 min (1RI group) or 3 min (3RI group) interval length between sets. Each bout was performed to voluntary fatigue and the workout volume completed was calculated. Subjects provided blood samples before each bout, and at 24, and 48 h following exercise to evaluate serum CK activity. Muscle soreness was analyzed through visual analog scale, which was presented to subjects before frst bout, immediately after exercise protocol and at 24, and 48 h following exercise.

Results:

The results demonstrated that the subjects with longer rest intervals provide greater workout volume as expected, but there were no differences in serum CK activity and muscle soreness between groups.

Conclusion:

Training with highvolume, low-intensity resistance training, exercising with short rest intervals does not appear to present any additional challenge to recovery in untrained subjects.

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Patrick P.J.M. Schoenmakers, Florentina J. Hettinga and Kate E. Reed

, Moir GL . The influence of recovery duration on multiple sprint cycling performance . J Strength Cond Res . 2005 ; 19 ( 4 ): 831 – 837 . 16331865 9. Lee C-L , Cheng C-F , Lin J-C , Huang H-W . Caffeine’s effect on intermittent sprint cycling performance with different rest intervals

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Peter Ibbott, Nick Ball, Marijke Welvaert and Kevin G. Thompson

that over the course of 8 sets to failure of a split squat exercise at 75% 1RM that sEMG activity of the vastus lateralis did not increase despite the number of repetitions completed decreasing. The minimal change in the sEMG activity in the current study may be due to the rest interval length being

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Lindsay P. Toth, Susan Park, Whitney L. Pittman, Damla Sarisaltik, Paul R. Hibbing, Alvin L. Morton, Cary M. Springer, Scott E. Crouter and David R. Bassett

consecutive steps must be taken before a method begins accumulating steps, and 2) to determine how long of a rest interval is required to break up walking bouts for methods that have a consecutive stepping requirement. In Part 1, a series of five trials were conducted to test the effects of varying the number