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Janelle Prince, Eric Schussler and Ryan McCann

4 weeks has also been identified as grounds for PCS classification. 10 The mainstay of treatment for an SRC, traditionally, is rest followed by a stepwise return to learn, then physical activity and, finally, return to sport. Time lost due to concussion is at least 5 days following symptom

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David P. Looney, Mark J. Buller, Andrei V. Gribok, Jayme L. Leger, Adam W. Potter, William V. Rumpler, William J. Tharion, Alexander P. Welles, Karl E. Friedl and Reed W. Hoyt

) such as solely heart rate ( Buller et al., 2013 ). While the majority of estimation methods for CT have focused on stressed environments during exercise conditions, resting CT modeling is particularly valuable for research and clinical purposes including circadian rhythm monitoring. Circadian rhythm

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Mark H. Anshel and Craig A. Wrisberg

In the present study an attempt was made to determine the relative effectiveness of various warm-up activities in eliminating postrest warm-up decrement (WUD) in the tennis serve. Seventy highly-skilled players hit 20 serves, rested for either 5 or 15 min, and then attempted 4 final serves. During the last 2 min of the rest period, players continued to rest, ran in place, engaged in mental imagery, performed practice swings, or repeatedly hit the ball against the ground and caught it. In addition to estimates of serving accuracy, measures of somatic and cognitive arousal were obtained at the beginning and end of the rest interval. Multiple regression procedures revealed that reductions in WUD were significantly related to the restoration of prerest arousal levels. Between-group comparisons indicated that practice swings were the most effective warm-up activity for restoring somatic and cognitive arousal to prerest levels and for eliminating WUD. Theoretical discussion centered on possible applications of Nacson and Schmidt's (1971) activity-set hypothesis to the tennis serve.

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Marcus Börjesson, Carolina Lundqvist, Henrik Gustafsson and Paul Davis

established methods available. A less established relaxation technique is the Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique (REST), which is based on the premise that a relaxed state can be achieved by reducing stimuli in the individual’s environment. Although variations exist in the setting and the duration

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James J. Tufano, Jenny A. Conlon, Sophia Nimphius, Lee E. Brown, Laurent B. Seitz, Bryce D. Williamson and G. Gregory Haff


To compare the effects of a traditional set structure and 2 cluster set structures on force, velocity, and power during back squats in strength-trained men.


Twelve men (25.8 ± 5.1 y, 1.74 ± 0.07 m, 79.3 ± 8.2 kg) performed 3 sets of 12 repetitions at 60% of 1-repetition maximum using 3 different set structures: traditional sets (TS), cluster sets of 4 (CS4), and cluster sets of 2 (CS2).


When averaged across all repetitions, peak velocity (PV), mean velocity (MV), peak power (PP), and mean power (MP) were greater in CS2 and CS4 than in TS (P < .01), with CS2 also resulting in greater values than CS4 (P < .02). When examining individual sets within each set structure, PV, MV, PP, and MP decreased during the course of TS (effect sizes 0.28–0.99), whereas no decreases were noted during CS2 (effect sizes 0.00–0.13) or CS4 (effect sizes 0.00–0.29).


These results demonstrate that CS structures maintain velocity and power, whereas TS structures do not. Furthermore, increasing the frequency of intraset rest intervals in CS structures maximizes this effect and should be used if maximal velocity is to be maintained during training.

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Masatoshi Nakamura, Shigeru Sato, Ryosuke Kiyono, Nobushige Takahashi and Tomoichi Yoshida

and there is a possibility that the effect of SS on shear elastic modulus could depend on SS intensity. 18 Previous studies have reported that the effects of resistance training are affected by rest duration between sets of resistance training apart from the intensity and number of repetitions during

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Peter Ibbott, Nick Ball, Marijke Welvaert and Kevin G. Thompson

training stimulus. During heavy resistance training, interset rest periods are one such variable that aims to provide the athlete with sufficient rest to successfully complete the subsequent repetitions. 10 For heavy strength training, rest periods of 3 to 5 minutes are commonly prescribed 11 , 12 as a

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Landon Lempke, Abbis Jaffri and Nicholas Erdman

is necessary to prevent a protracted recovery. 1 For the past several decades, physical rest has been prescribed as a mainstay for SRC management. 1 More recently, rest has been divided into cognitive and physical components. Cognitive rest may include restricting daily living activities, such as

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Justin J. Merrigan, James J. Tufano, Jonathan M. Oliver, Jason B. White, Jennifer B. Fields and Margaret T. Jones

Increasing power output is important when training athletes. Power is the product of force and velocity; therefore, changes in velocity are reciprocal for power. 1 During traditional resistance training, repetitions are performed continuously, without rest, until the set is complete. Within

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Andrew Hooyman, Alexander Garbin and Beth Fisher

Associative Stimulation (PAS)/electroencephalogram (EEG) paradigm in the context of prior research which has determined that resting-state intracortical connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and primary motor cortex (M1) is predictive of motor learning capability ( Wu, Srinivasan