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Kathryn H. Myburgh, Claire Berman, Illana Novick, Timothy D. Noakes, and Estelle V. Lambert

We studied 21 ballet dancers aged 19.4 ± 1.4 years, hypothesizing that undernu-trition was a major factor in menstrual irregularity in this population. Menstrual history was determined by questionnaire. Eight dancers had always been regular (R). Thirteen subjects had a history of menstrual irregularity (HI). Of these, 2 were currently regularly menstruating, 3 had short cycles, 6 were oligomenorrheic, and 2 were amenorrheic. Subjects completed a weighed dietary record and an Eating Attitudes Test (EAT). The following physiological parameters were measured: body composition by anthropometry, resting metabolic rate (RMR) by open-circuit indirect calorimetry, and serum thyroid hormone concentrations by radioimmunoassay. R subjects had significantly higher RMR than HI subjects. Also, HI subjects had lower RMR than predicted by fat-free mass, compared to the R subjects. Neitherreported energy intake nor serum thyroid hormone concentrations were different between R and HI subjects. EAT scores varied and were not different between groups. We concluded that in ballet dancers, low RMR is more strongly associated with menstrual irregularity than is currentreported energy intake or serum thyroid hormone concentrations.

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Krystyna Burkhard-Jagodzinska, Krystyna Nazar, Maria Ladyga, Janina Starczewska-Czapowska, and Lech Borkowski

Twelve girls who trained in rowing were examined twice a year for 4 years. Their initial age was 11.7 ± (SD) 0.2 yrs. Control groups consisted of 13 girls age 11.5±0.3 yrs and 18 girls age 14.4±0.3 yrs examined simultaneously with trained girls in the first and last year of the study, respectively. The examination involved basic anthropometry, estimation of sexual maturation (Tanner scale), 2-day food records, measurements of resting metabolic rate, energy expenditure following glucose ingestion (50 g), and determinations of blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations prior to and 2 hrs after glucose load. Body mass, height, and fat content were slightly greater in trained girls. None of the subjects reported disturbances in menstrual function, and the age of menarche was similar for all. Both trained and untrained girls reported similar daily energy intake closer to the lower limit or slightly below the estimates of energy requirements for adolescents. Resting metabolic rate calculated per kg of total body mass or lean body mass was lower in trained girls, while the thermogenic effect of glucose was greater. Plasma insulin concentrations measured 2 hrs after glucose ingestion were lower in trained girls. The results suggest that in circumpubertal girls, increased physical activity leads to energy conservation at rest in postabsorptive state and a tendency toward enhancement of food-induced thermogenesis.

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Nicole C.A. Strock, Kristen J. Koltun, Emily A. Southmayd, Nancy I. Williams, and Mary Jane De Souza

laboratory has utilized the ratio of measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) to predicted RMR based on prediction equations to identify those at risk for being energy deficient ( De Souza et al., 2007a , 2008 ; Scheid et al., 2009 ). Comparisons of measured-to-predicted RMR were initially utilized to

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Gary J. Farkas, Marika A. Pitot, and David R. Gater Jr.

; Farkas & Gater, 2017 ). Traditionally, TDEE is equal to the sum of the thermic effect of activity (TEA), the thermic effect of food, and the resting metabolic rate (RMR). TEA is the most variable aspect of the TDEE equation and is defined as the energy used above the resting needs for nonessential

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Todd Miller, Stephanie Mull, Alan Albert Aragon, James Krieger, and Brad Jon Schoenfeld

 hours and to remain normally hydrated prior to body composition and RMR assessment. After DXA scanning, subjects underwent testing for resting metabolic rate (RMR) via indirect calorimetry to determine daily resting caloric expenditure. Subjects sat quietly in a reclined position and breathed normally

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George Wilson, Carl Langan-Evans, Dan Martin, Andreas M. Kasper, James P. Morton, and Graeme L. Close

-based professional flat jockeys over a 5-year period. BASE = baseline; FU-1 = Follow-up 1; FU-2 = Follow-up 2; RMR = resting metabolic rate; RMR meas  = resting metabolic rate assessment via indirect calorimetry; RMR pred  = predicted resting metabolic rate; RMR ratio  = resting metabolic rate ratio. *Significant

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Jennie L. Carter, David J. Lee, Craig G. Perrin, Mayur K. Ranchordas, and Matthew Cole

nutritional intake on soccer performance has been well documented, particularly in relation to energy and carbohydrate (CHO) requirements, and plays a key role in optimizing fueling and recovery from training and matches ( Collins et al., 2021 ). Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a major component of total

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George Wilson, Dan Martin, James P. Morton, and Graeme L. Close

-documented reports of low BMD, it remains questionable if jockeys are athletes who truly exhibit symptoms of RED-S. Indeed, measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) does not differ from predicted RMR ( Cunningham & Johns, 1980 ), either before ( Wilson et al., 2015a , 2015b ) or after dietary interventions ( Wilson et

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Heidi K. Byrne and Jack H. Wilmore

The present cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the relationship between exercise training and resting metabolic rate (RMR). The focus of this investigation was to compare RMR in aerobically trained (AT), resistance trained (RT), and untrained (UNT) women. Subjects were also classified as highly trained (HT), moderately trained (MT), or untrained (UNT) in order to examine the relationship between RMR and level of training. Sixty-one women between the ages of 18 and 46 years volunteered to serve as subjects in this study. Each subject completed measurements of body composition, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), and two consecutive measurements of RMR. The data presented show that there was no significant difference in resting metabolic rate between resistance-trained, aerobically trained, and control subjects. However, when grouped by intensity of training, there was a trend for an increased resting metabolic rate (kcal/day) in the highly trained subjects, regardless of mode of training.

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Kristin L. Osterberg and Christopher L. Melby

This study determined the effect of an intense bout of resistive exercise on postexercise oxygen consumption, resting metabolic rate, and resting fat oxidation in young women (N = 7, ages 22-35). On the morning of Day 1, resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured by indirect calorimetry. At 13:00 hr, preexercise resting oxygen consumption was measured followed by 100 min of resistive exercise. Postexercise oxygen consumption was then measured for a 3-hr recovery period. On the following morning (Day 2), RMR was once again measured in a fasted state at 07:00. Postexercise oxygen consumption remained elevated during the entire 3-hr postexercise recovery period compared to the pre-exercise baseline. Resting metabolic rate was increased by 4.2% (p < .05) from Day 1 (morning prior to exercise: 1,419 ± 58 kcal/24 hr) compared to Day 2 (16 hr following exercise: 1,479 ± 65 kcal/24 hr). Resting fat oxidation as determined by the respiratory exchange ratio was also significantly elevated on Day 2 compared to Day 1. These results indicate that among young women, acute strenuous resistance exercise of the nature used in this study is capable of producing modest but prolonged elevations of postexercise metabolic rate and possibly fat oxidation.