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Sophie Knights, Emma Sherry, Mandy Ruddock-Hudson and Paul O’Halloran

Transition out of professional sport into retirement has been a topic of considerable research in recent years ( Alfermann, Stambulova, & Zemaityte, 2004 ; Torregrosa, Ramis, Pallarés, Azócar, & Selva, 2015 ). It is a given that throughout our lives we transition from one phase or stage to the

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Rajni Rai, Michelle I. Jongenelis, Ben Jackson, Robert U. Newton and Simone Pettigrew

adults fail to meet the recommended levels ( Hallal et al., 2012 ). In Australia, the context of this study, almost two thirds (65%) of older adults do not engage in sufficient levels of physical activity ( Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2015 ). Retirement is a life transition that can bring about both

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Shani Pitcho-Prelorentzos and Michal Mahat-Shamir

Professional athletes are prone to sustaining serious sport-related injuries due to the massive pressure to succeed, sometimes regardless of the costs, which may lead in some cases to career termination ( Cavallerio, Wadey, & Wagstaff, 2016 ; Jones, Griffiths, & Mellalieu, 2017 ). Retirement from

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Garry D. Wheeler, Laurie A. Malone, Sandy VanVlack, Ewen R. Nelson and Robert D. Steadward

We examined the transition experiences and adjustment to retirement among 18 athletes with disabilities. Adopting a grounded theory approach, we interviewed athletes using a semistructured format based on Schlossberg’s (1981, 1984) transition model. Three basic questions were asked regarding the competitive period, events surrounding the retirement decision, and adjustment to retirement. Data were analyzed by an iterative process and a model was developed. Sport was a highly valued part of the lives of athletes; personal commitment to sport was evident and often taken to extremes including overtraining and ignoring medical advice. Transition from sport was an emotional experience for athletes, and difficulties were associated with voluntary versus involuntary retirement and readiness or lack of readiness for retirement. Coping with retirement appeared to be facilitated by readiness and having other job and family interests outside of sport. Many athletes expressed concern regarding chronic injuries and aging with a disability. We suggest that the Schlossberg model is a useful framework for examining athlete transition and adjustment to retirement.

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Anne Holding, Jo-Annie Fortin, Joëlle Carpentier, Nora Hope and Richard Koestner

retirement, whereas athletes retiring for controlled reasons are likely to encounter difficulties distancing themselves from their athletic career and adjust poorly to retirement. While career termination is a normative and inevitable transition for athletes, it can be met with mixed adjustment outcomes such

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Annie Holt, Andy H. Lee, Jonine Jancey, Deborah Kerr and Peter Howat

Purpose:

This study investigated physical activity (PA) facilities of retirement villages (RVs) and neighborhood PA barriers identified by RV residents in Perth, Australia.

Methods:

An environmental audit of PA facilities was undertaken on 50 RV with 50+ independent living units, using the Audit of Physical Activity Resources for Seniors. Telephone interviews with 200 RV residents were conducted to identify neighborhood barriers to walking, and to obtain information on utilization of facilities and attendance of PA programs.

Results:

Larger size RV appeared to provide significantly more PA facilities and programs. Utilization of PA facilities and program attendance were low (≈ 50%) and not associated with the RV environment (size, age, and facilities). Neighborhood barriers to walking were unsafe streets and hills.

Discussion:

RV offers an attractive residential option with facilities that support active aging, but it is important to understand the barriers and enablers to use such facilities and attend programs offered.

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Andrea Nathan, Lisa Wood and Billie Giles-Corti

This study explored individual, social, and built environmental attributes in and outside of the retirement village setting and associations with various active living outcomes including objectively measured physical activity, specific walking behaviors, and social participation. Residents in Perth, Australia (N = 323), were surveyed on environmental perceptions of the village and surrounding neighborhood, self-reported physical activity, and demographic characteristics and wore accelerometers. Managers (N = 32) were surveyed on village characteristics, and objective neighborhood measures were generated in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results indicated that built- and social-environmental attributes within and outside of retirement villages were associated with active living among residents; however, salient attributes varied depending on the specific outcome considered. Findings suggest that locating villages close to destinations is important for walking and that locating them close to previous and familiar neighborhoods is important for social participation. Further understanding and consideration into retirement village designs that promote both walking and social participation are needed.

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Dori E. Rosenberg, Jacqueline Kerr, James F. Sallis, Gregory J. Norman, Karen Calfas and Kevin Patrick

The authors tested the feasibility and acceptability, and explored the outcomes, of 2 walking interventions based on ecological models among older adults living in retirement communities. An enhanced intervention (EI) was compared with a standard walking intervention (SI) among residents in 4 retirement facilities (N = 87 at baseline; mean age = 84.1 yr). All participants received a walking intervention including pedometers, printed materials, and biweekly group sessions. EI participants also received phone counseling and environmental-awareness components. Measures included pedometer step counts, activities of daily living, environment-related variables, physical function, depression, cognitive function, satisfaction, and adherence. Results indicated improvements among the total sample for step counts, neighborhood barriers, cognitive function, and satisfaction with walking opportunities. Satisfaction and adherence were high. Both walking interventions were feasible to implement among facility-dwelling older adults. Future studies can build on this multilevel approach.

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Susan L. Greendorfer and Elaine M. Blinde

Survey data from 1,123 former intercollegiate athletes (427 males and 697 females) were examined relative to commitment to a sport role, educational and occupational preparation, postcareer sport participation, social interests, and adjustment to sport retirement. Chi-square and factor analyses revealed that the former athletes in this study did not totally withdraw from the system of sport, that some shifting or reprioritization of interests occurred during their athletic career, and that the process of leaving sport may be more gradual or transitional than previously believed. Patterns obtained were similar for both males and females, and there was little evidence to suggest these athletes experienced adjustment difficulties. In light of these findings, an alternative conceptualization of the sport “retirement” process is offered.

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Marta C. Erlandson, Shonah B. Runalls, Stefan A. Jackowski, Robert A. Faulkner and Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones

both in childhood and after long-term retirement (up to 24 y) from the sport ( 19 , 29 , 38 ), few studies have examined other measures of bone strength, such as bone geometry and structural properties, which are known to impact fracture risk. Bone strength can be assessed by determining structural