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Steve Amireault, John M. Baier and Jonathan R. Spencer

participation among older adults is both relevant and timely. To this end, preferences for physical activity should be integrated across all key behavioral or exercise program components. This study reviews the preferences for physical activity in adults aged 65 years and older. The term “preferences for

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Francisco Alvarez-Barbosa, Jesús del Pozo-Cruz, Borja del Pozo-Cruz, Antonio García-Hermoso and Rosa María Alfonso-Rosa

factors among older adults ( Pollock et al., 2012 ; Zhang et al., 2014 ), the absence of a common protocol intervention makes the judgment of its effectiveness difficult ( Rogan et al., 2015 ). Despite a previous systematic review of the effects of WBV on fall risk factors in older people living in the

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Jiying Ling, Lorraine B. Robbins, Fujun Wen and Wei Peng

Comprehensive evaluation of prior interventions designed to increase preschoolers’ physical activity is lacking. This systematic review aimed to examine the effect of interventions on objectively measured physical activity in children aged 2–5 years. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. In May 2014, we searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane, and Embase. Two reviewers independently identified and appraised the studies. Twenty-four articles describing 23 independent studies and 20 unique interventions met inclusion criteria. Of the 8 interventions resulting in a significant effect in objectively measured physical activity, all were center-based and included a structured physical activity component, 6 included multiple components, 5 integrated theories or models, and 4 actively involved parents. Seven of the 8 were randomized controlled trials. Due to the heterogeneity of the study designs, physical activity measures, and interventions, drawing definitive conclusions was difficult. Although the overall intervention effect was less than optimal, the review indicated that theory-driven, multicomponent interventions including a structured physical activity component and targeting both parents and their children may be a promising approach for increasing preschoolers’ physical activity and warrant continued investigation using rigorous designs to identify those that are most effective.

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Sergio J. Ibáñez, Javier García-Rubio, Antonio Antúnez and Sebastián Feu

formats. To keep current across scientific fields and research topics, researchers carry out theoretical projects in which they report progress made in a specific area. These theoretical investigations can take three possible forms ( Ato, López-García, & Benavente, 2013 ): (a) Narrative reviews – a

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Juliet A. Harvey, Sebastien F.M. Chastin and Dawn A. Skelton

Background/objectives:

Sedentary behavior (SB), defined as sitting (nonexercising), reclining, and lying down (posture), or by low energy expenditure, is a public health risk independent to physical activity. The objective of this systematic literature review was to synthesize the available evidence on amount of SB reported by and measured in older adults.

Data source:

Studies published between 1981 and 2014 were identified from electronic databases and manual searching. Large-scale population studies/surveys reporting the amount of SB (objective/subjective) in older adults aged ≥ 60 years of age were included. Appraisal and synthesis was completed using MOOSE guidelines.

Results:

349,698 adults aged ≥ 60 within 22 studies (10 countries and 1 EU-wide) were included. Objective measurement of SB shows that older adults spend an average of 9.4 hr a day sedentary, equating to 65–80% of their waking day. Self-report of SB is lower, with average weighted self-reports being 5.3 hr daily. Within specific domains of SB, older adults report 3.3 hr in leisure sitting time and 3.3 hr watching TV. There is an association with more time spent in SB as age advances and a trend for older men to spend more time in SB than women.

Conclusion/implications:

Time spent sedentary ranges from 5.3–9.4 hr per waking day in older adults. With recent studies suggesting a link between SB, health, and well-being, independent of physical activity, this is an area important for successful aging.

Limitations:

Different methodologies of measurement and different reporting methods of SB made synthesis difficult. Estimated SB time from self-report is half of that measured objectively; suggesting that most self-report surveys of SB will vastly underestimate the actual time spent in SB.

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Risto Marttinen, Dillon Landi, Dario Novak and Stephen Silverman

literature review. A literature review synthesizes published research on a topic of study. A systematic analysis, on the other hand, codes and categorizes characteristics of research articles (e.g., research focus, country of origin, methods) to examine trends ( Byrne, 2017 ). Silverman and Skonie ( 1997

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Cassandra J. de Lacy-Vawdon, Ruth Klein, Joanna Schwarzman, Genevieve Nolan, Renee de Silva, David Menzies and Ben J. Smith

participated in organized PA in the past 12 months ( Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2015 ). The barriers and facilitators of PA participation by older people have been studied extensively. A systematic review of 132 qualitative studies investigating older people’s perspectives on PA identified six critical

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Peter Olusoga, Marte Bentzen and Goran Kentta

systematic review of the literature on burnout in sport. Earlier reviews had been carried out almost 20 years previously ( Dale & Weinberg, 1990 ; Fender, 1989 ). In each case, the focus of the review was on burnout in sport as a whole so studies reporting on athlete burnout were included. Specifically, in

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Cale A. Jacobs, Christian P. Christensen and Michael E. Berend

Over the past 10–15 years, many aspects of total hip arthroplasty (THA) have changed. First and foremost, the patients themselves have changed. Since 1990, the age group that has demonstrated the greatest increase in THA was patients between the ages of 45 and 64. As younger, healthier patients are having surgery, a greater emphasis is being placed on postoperative function, activity, and exercise. The rationale for increased postoperative activity is 2-fold: the obvious cardiovascular benefits of exercise and greater patient desire to return to recreational sporting activities. The purpose of this review is to discuss how recent changes in surgical technique, implant design, and pre- and postoperative rehabilitation have affected postoperative athletic activity for THA patients. Although these topics have been addressed often in the orthopedic literature, to our knowledge no published articles have summarized this information for a targeted audience of rehabilitation specialists.

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Peter A. Hastie

Purpose:

The purpose of this paper was to review the research literature in physical education to establish what is currently known about the extent to which the national outcome goals have been achieved.

Method:

Papers were selected through an initial search of the EBSCO database, with main identifiers included being physical education, physical activity, and physical fitness, combined with the descriptors that represented the key idea of each of the give content standards. Further journal articles were then obtained through the citations and references in the original documents.

Results:

While there is a dearth of results that directly accounts for the accomplishment of the standards, the research suggests that the expectations of performance, as outlined in the standards, are being realized by less than half of all students participating in physical education.

Discussion:

The discussion presents a model for moving research in the field forward, and suggests there is a need for descriptive studies which provide rich details of the contexts where highly effective, as well as sophisticated interventions whose goal is to produce significant change in selected student outcomes.