-prediction errors. This perspective, frequently coined as model-free learning ( Haith & Krakauer, 2013 ), claims that motor learning can also be driven by rewards ( Galea, Mallia, Rothwell, & Diedrichsen, 2015 ; Izawa & Shadmehr, 2011 ; Lohse, Miller, Bacelar, & Krigolson, 2019 ; Nikooyan & Ahmed, 2015 ). This
Mariane F.B. Bacelar, Keith R. Lohse and Matthew W. Miller
Lynley Ingerson and Michael L. Naraine
the right talent here. If sport managers feel right at the Braves, then the evidence shows that they are more motivated to perform their responsibilities at a higher level. Donelly: Then we need to think about motivational aspects in the job when writing the descriptions so that rewards are relevant
Kimberley J. Bartholomew, Nikos Ntoumanis and Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani
This article outlines the development and initial validation of the Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale (CCBS), a multidimensional self-report measure designed to assess sports coaches’ controlling interpersonal style from the perspective of self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002). Study 1 generated a pool of items, based on past literature and feedback from coaches, athletes, and academic experts. The factorial structure of the questionnaire was tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across Studies 2 and 3. The final CCBS model in Study 3 comprised 4 factors (controlling use of rewards, conditional regard, intimidation, and excessive personal control) and was cross-validated using a third independent sample in Study 4. The scale demonstrated good content and factorial validity, as well as internal consistency and invariance across gender and sport type. Suggestions for its use in research pertaining to the darker side of coaching and sport participation are discussed.
Mario Díaz-Cueto, Juan Luis Hernández-Álvarez and Francisco Javier Castejón
The purpose of this study was to understand the perceptions of in-service Physical Education (PE) teachers when using Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) in teaching sports. Data were gathered from interviews, work group meetings, and participants’ diaries. The results show the difficulties PE teachers had in the planning and implementation of TGfU. In the initial stage of implementing TGfU, teachers reported feelings of insecurity to the point of doubting their own pedagogical expertise and knowledge. They also reported anxiety and exhaustion. Once they surpassed the first stage, teachers’ feelings of satisfaction increased in parallel with students’ improvement, in particular because students with the lowest skill level had made significant progress in decision-making, overall compression of the game, and tactical problem solving. This study identified some major challenges facing PE teachers wishing to implement TGfU, and thus allows for the development of support strategies to promote teachers’ pedagogical self-assessment.
Ahmed Al-Emadi, Nicholas D. Theodorakis, Donna Pastore, Abdellatif Sellami and Abdulaye Diop
job nature – were confirmed, however, the benefits factor was split into two factors. Those factors were labeled rewards and limitations, because they described the positive (i.e., good salaries, additional benefits beyond base pay) and negative aspects (i.e., lack of job security, lack of tenure
Bernard Oliver, Janice M. Bibik, Timothy J.L. Chandler and Stacey L. Lane
Recent efforts to expand the profession of teaching and to enhance the career paths of teachers have led to the development and implementation of various incentive systems. The question of rewards for teaching and teachers has prompted considerable debate and discussion on performance-based or “merit” pay. However, few of the incentive systems implemented have investigated the psychological underpinning of rewards and teachers’ career development. This paper discusses the psychological parameters of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards and the career development of teachers.
that make global interchanges far more convenient than they were in 1926 when it began as the American Academy of Physical Education, many of the members struggle with balancing the rewards of change with the recompenses of continuity. In this context, Bradley J. Cardinal, the president of the academy
Margie A. Weaver and Packianathan Chelladurai
Associate/Assistant athletic administrators from Division I (139 males, 123 females) and Division III (130 males, 123 females) universities of the NCAA responded to a questionnaire consisting of (a) items eliciting background information, (b) perceived and preferred mentoring functions measured by the Mentor Role Instrument (Ragins & McFarlin, 1990), (c) perceived barriers to mentoring measured by Perceived Barriers Scale (Ragins & Cotton, 1991), and a scale of satisfaction developed for the study. Factor analysis yielded three facets of satisfaction: Work Group, Extrinsic Rewards, and Intrinsic Rewards. The results of MÁNOVA showed that an equal proportion of males and females had experienced mentoring relationships, and mentored individuals were more satisfied with work than their non-mentored counterparts. Respondents from Division I received significantly higher salaries, and they were more satisfied with their extrinsic rewards than the respondents from Division III. Finally, correlational analyses showed positive but weak relationships between mentoring functions and the satisfaction facets.
Thierry Long, Nathalie Pantaléon, Gérard Bruant and Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville
Based on game reasoning theory (Shields & Bredemeier, 2001) and related research, the present study aimed at describing young elite athletes’ perceptions of rules compliance and transgression in competitive settings, as well as the underlying reasons for these actions. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 young elite athletes. The qualitative analysis showed that respect and transgression of rules in competitive settings were perceived to depend upon the athletes’ individual characteristics (e.g., desire to win), their social environment (e.g., coach’s pressure, team norms), sports values and virtues (e.g., fair play, the effort ethic), and modern sports rewards (e.g., media recognition, financial rewards). These results confirmed and expanded game reasoning theory and illustrated moral disengagement mechanisms (Bandura et al., 1996) in the sport domain.
Kevin J. Christiano
Using data on the salaries of 212 nonpitchers appearing in team lineups on major league baseball’s 1977 Opening Day, this article explores how rewards to veteran professionals are influenced by race. Multiple regression analyses and separate comparisons of regression coefficients for returns to performances by blacks and by whites reveal a single indication of salary discrimination against blacks. White infielders are apparently paid more for each home run they hit than are their black counterparts.