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Tomasz Skowronek, Grzegorz Juras and Kajetan J. Słomka

The sense of rhythm is critical to repetitive movement tasks. Precise timing activates an optimal automatic motor pattern needed for successful motor task realization, 1 , 2 which is crucial for daily motor activities, as well as in sport performance. But, in fact, we do not know how fatigue

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Tatsuya Daikoku, Yuji Takahashi, Nagayoshi Tarumoto and Hideki Yasuda

and rhythms) tone information were changed in attended and ignored conditions and how concurrent physical activities modulate the tolerance for the temporal and acoustical changes in auditory sequences. Ignored and attended sessions were conducted in the present study. In each session, participants

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Ming-Yang Cheng, Chung-Ju Huang, Yu-Kai Chang, Dirk Koester, Thomas Schack and Tsung-Min Hung

Sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) activity has been related to automaticity during skilled action execution. However, few studies have bridged the causal link between SMR activity and sports performance. This study investigated the effect of SMR neurofeedback training (SMR NFT) on golf putting performance. We hypothesized that preelite golfers would exhibit enhanced putting performance after SMR NFT. Sixteen preelite golfers were recruited and randomly assigned into either an SMR or a control group. Participants were asked to perform putting while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded, both before and after intervention. Our results showed that the SMR group performed more accurately when putting and exhibited greater SMR power than the control group after 8 intervention sessions. This study concludes that SMR NFT is effective for increasing SMR during action preparation and for enhancing golf putting performance. Moreover, greater SMR activity might be an EEG signature of improved attention processing, which induces superior putting performance.

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Guneet Chawla, Madelon Hoppe, Nina Browner and Michael D. Lewek

, enabling synchronization between the individual’s steps and the beat ( Ashoori et al., 2015 ; Leow, Parrott, & Grahn, 2014 ). Music, however, which may be more enjoyable than a metronome and is used commonly during exercise, may be less effective than the metronome due to the many layers of rhythms and

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Douglas Potter and Denis Keeling

The effects of exercise and circadian rhythms on memory function were explored in a group of shift workers (mean age 32 yrs). A variant of the Auditory-Verbal Learning Test was used to test memory for word lists at 9:30 a.m. and 12:30, 3:30, and 6:30 p.m. in a repeated-measures design. Without exercise there was clear evidence of a circadian rhythm in memory performance, with peak performance occurring at 12:30 and poorest performance at 3:30. A brisk 10-min walk followed by a 15- to 30-min recovery period resulted in significant improvement in memory recall at all time periods except 12:30. The results of the AVLT task suggest an improvement in both working memory and long-term memory performance. Rhythmic changes in serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine levels all affect cortical arousal and cognitive function. Exercise may have resulted in altered levels of these neurotransmitters, increased glucose, oxygen, or nutrient levels, or from temporary changes in growth hormone or brain-derived neurotropic factor levels resulting in increased synaptogenesis and neurogenesis. The physiological basis of this temporary improvement in memory remains to be determined, but this simple behavioral intervention may have widespread application in improving memory function in all sections of the population including children and the elderly.

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Reint H. Geuze and Alex F. Kalverboer

This study is concerned with deficits in the ability to maintain an imposed rhythm in a tapping task and the possible sources of these deficits. Three groups of children between the ages of 7 and 12 with IQs above 75 participated: a group of children who were clumsy, a group who were dyslexic, and a control group whose reading and coordination were considered age appropriate. The children performed a series of “continuation” tapping tasks in which hand, speed, and rhythm of tapping were manipulated. The performance measure taken was the variability of tapping after the pacing signal had ceased. When the three groups were compared, the children who were clumsy showed a slightly increased variability across all tasks but no sign of lateralized performance differences. In contrast, the children who were dyslexic showed increased variability in only one task, involving the right hand. The results are discussed in relation to three different models of brain dysfunction.

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Adam Naylor and Andrew G. Saalfield

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Matthew Ferry, Nate McCaughtry and Pamela Hodges Kulinna

The purpose of this study was to examine teachers’ social and emotional knowledge of students and how it functioned within the wider context of their daily work lives. Five elementary school physical education teachers participated in six rounds of observations with formal and informal interviews over one school year. Data were analyzed through constant comparison and inductive analysis. We identified four key junctures where social and emotional knowledge of students played a critical role in teachers’ work. The results of this study and previous literature point to the complex interconnections between teachers’ social and emotional knowledge of their students and teaching practices.

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Nikolaos Digelidis, Costas Karageorghis, Anastasia Papapavlou and Athanasios G. Papaioannou

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of asynchronous (background) music on senior students’ motivation and lesson satisfaction at the situational level. A counterbalanced mixed-model design was employed with two factors comprising condition (three levels) and gender (two levels). Two hundred students (82 boys, 118 girls; Mage = 16.3 years) volunteered to participate in the study. A lesson was developed and delivered under three experimental conditions: a) teacher-selected music condition; b) student-selected music condition; and c) a no-music control condition. Mixed-model 3 (Condition) × 2 (Gender) ANOVAs were applied to examine the effects of experimental manipulations. No Condition × Gender interaction was observed, although there was a main effect for Condition. When the lesson was delivered under the two music conditions, students scored significantly higher in lesson satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, identified regulation and reported lower scores for external regulation and amotivation. The present results support the notion that the use of background music has potentially positive effects on students’ lesson satisfaction and intrinsic motivation, although neither gender nor who selected the music (teacher vs. students) had any moderating influence on the results.

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Costas I. Karageorghis, Denis A. Mouzourides, David-Lee Priest, Tariq A. Sasso, Daley J. Morrish and Carolyn L. Walley

The present study examined the impact of motivational music and oudeterous (neutral in terms of motivational qualities) music on endurance and a range of psychophysical indices during a treadmill walking task. Experimental participants (N = 30; mean age = 20.5 years, SD = 1.0 years) selected a program of either pop or rock tracks from artists identified in an earlier survey. They walked to exhaustion, starting at 75% maximal heart rate reserve, under conditions of motivational synchronous music, oudeterous synchronous music, and a no-music control. Dependent measures included time to exhaustion, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and in-task affect (both recorded at 2-min intervals), and exercise-induced feeling states. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze time to exhaustion data. Two-way repeated measures (Music Condition × Trial Point) ANOVAs were used to analyze in-task measures, whereas a one-way repeated measures MANOVA was used to analyze the exercise-induced feeling states data. Results indicated that endurance was increased in both music conditions and that motivational music had a greater ergogenic effect than did oudeterous music (p < .01). In addition, in-task affect was enhanced by motivational synchronous music when compared with control throughout the trial (p < .01). The experimental conditions did not impact significantly (p > .05) upon RPE or exercise-induced feeling states, although a moderate effect size was recorded for the latter (ηp 2 = .09). The present results indicate that motivational synchronous music can elicit an ergogenic effect and enhance in-task affect during an exhaustive endurance task.