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Michael A. Riley and David P. Black

Adaptation to prisms can produce a change in felt arm position, termed proprioceptive shift. We studied the effects of prism-induced proprioceptive shift on interlimb rhythmic coordination performed under proprioceptive guidance, in the absence of vision. Relative to interlimb rhythmic coordination performed before prism exposure, the observed steady states of relative phase for postexposure coordination were shifted by a small but reliable amount. The shift was in the direction expected, given the direction of optical displacement. The amount of variability of interlimb rhythmic coordination was unaffected by prism exposure. The results suggest that the same spatial frames of reference altered by prism adaptation are involved in the production of interlimb rhythmic coordination patterns.

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David P. Black, Michael A. Riley, and Christopher K. McCord

The authors conducted two experiments that served as a test bed for applying the recently developed uncontrolled manifold (UCM) approach to rhythmic motor coordination, which has been extensively investigated from a coordination dynamics perspective. The results of two experiments, one investigating withinperson and one investigating between-persons rhythmic movement coordination, identified synergistic behaviors in both of those types of coordination. Stronger synergies were identified for in-phase than antiphase coordination, at the endpoints of the movement cycles compared with the midpoints, for movement frequencies closer to the intrinsic frequency of the coordinated limbs, and for within-person coordination. Frequency detuning did not weaken the strength of interlimb rhythmic coordination synergies. The results suggest the synergistic behavior captured by the UCM analysis may be identifiable with the strength of coupling between the coordinated limbs. The UCM analysis appears to distinguish coordination parameters that affect coupling strength from parameters that weaken coordination attractors.

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Suvobrata Mitra, Polemnia G. Amazeen, and Michael T. Turvey

We investigated the 1:1 frequency locking of two hand-held pendulums oscillated parallel to the body's coronal plane. In this configuration, anti-phase defined muscularly is in-phase defined spatially, and vice versa. Coordination equilibria measured by average relative phase were shifted less from muscular anti-phase than from muscular in-phase by detuning (unequal uncoupled pendulum frequencies) and were shifted less in both modes with vision than without. Variability of the equilibria, however, was ordered opposite to their degrees of shift and was unaffected by vision. Demonstrated subcritical pitchfork and tangent bifurcations conformed to the variability classification of anti- and in-phase coordination. Implications for dynamical models, hierarchical control, and definitions of coordination modes were discussed.

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Alexandre Murian, Thibault Deschamps, and Jean Jacques Temprado

The current study investigated the influence of resistance to motion and trial duration on the stability of bimanual coordination patterns and attentional demands. Seven participants performed in-phase and antiphase coordination patterns at a frequency of 1.5 Hz for 300 s. Resistance opposed to pronation–supination movements was manipulated. Attentional demands associated with the bimanual coordination patterns performance were measured using a probe reaction-time task. Results showed that variations in the level of resistance to motion, which induced corresponding variations in the amount of muscle activation during both the in-phase and the antiphase pattern, were associated with longer reaction time. Relative phase variability and attentional demands were higher for the antiphase pattern than for the in-phase pattern. Moreover, the attentional demands did not covary with the increase in the antiphase pattern over the trial duration. The in-phase pattern remained unaffected by resistance opposed to pronation–supination movement. The present findings and the time effect are discussed according to potential alterations localized in different sites at the cortical level.

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Betteco J. de Boer, C. (Lieke) E. Peper, and Peter J. Beek

Developmental changes in bimanual coordination were examined in four age groups: 6/7, 10/11, 14/15 years, and young adults. Temporal coupling was assessed through the stabilizing contributions of interlimb interactions related to planning, error correction, and reflexes during rhythmic wrist movements, by comparing various unimanual and bimanual tasks involving passive and active movements. Spatial coupling was assessed via bimanual line-circle drawing. With increasing age, temporal stability improved. Relative contributions of planning and reflex interactions to the achieved stability did not change, whereas error correction improved. In-phase and antiphase coordination developed at similar rates; implications of this result were discussed in terms of mirror-activity inhibition. Overall spatial drawing performance (circularity, variability, smoothness) improved with age, and spatial interference was smaller in adults than children. Whereas temporal coupling increased from 6/7 years to adulthood, spatial coupling changed mainly after 14/15 years. This difference in the development of temporal and spatial coupling corresponds to the anterior-posterior direction of corpus callosum myelination as reported in the literature.

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M.J.M. Volman and Reint H. Geuze

The stability of single and bimanual (i.e., in-phase and antiphase) rhythmic finger movements was studied in 24 children with a developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and 24 matched controls from a dynamic pattern perspective. Stability was assessed by applying perturbations and measuring the time the system needed to return to its initial stability (i.e., the relaxation time). In addition, fluctuations of the patterns were measured. For antiphase coordination patterns, the frequency at which loss of stability occurred was also determined. Children with DCD displayed less stable single and bimanual rhythmic coordination patterns than control children. Further, within the DCD group, 9 children were identified as having particularly poor bimanual coordination stability. Individual differences suggested that variability of individual limb oscillations might have contributed to this poorer interlimb coordination stability. Findings were discussed in relation to a previous study on DCD in which the Wing-Kristofferson timekeeper model was applied.

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Michael A. Riley, Eric L. Amazeen, Polemnia G. Amazeen, Paul J. Treffner, and Michael T. Turvey

Handedness and attentional asymmetries in bimanual rhythmic coordination were examined as a function of movement speed. In an in-phase 1:1 frequency locking task, left-handed and right-handed subjects controlled the oscillations of either the right or the left hand so as to contact spatial targets. The task was performed at three frequencies of coupled movement. Coordination dynamics incorporating the body's functional asymmetry predicted that left-handers and right-handers would deviate from zero relative phase in opposite directions, that the deviation would be greater for preferred-hand targeting, and that this deviation would be greater at higher movement frequencies. The results confirmed the major predictions and suggested that asymmetry due to handedness is magnified by attention.

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Steven van Andel, Robin Pieper, Inge Werner, Felix Wachholz, Maurice Mohr, and Peter Federolf

In situ Park and Sternad ( 2015 ) Intervention with control group Bimanual rhythmic coordination N  = 16 Lab Pfaff and Cinelli ( 2018 ) Intervention with control group Walking N  = 20; rugby players: Rugby = 10; nonathletes: Rugby = 10 Lab Pham and Hicheur ( 2009 ) Intervention no control group

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Afshin Samani and Mathias Kristiansen

. London, UK : Pergamon Press . Black , D.P. , Riley , M.A. , & McCord , C.K. ( 2007 ). Synergies in intra- and interpersonal interlimb rhythmic coordination . Motor Control, 11 ( 4 ), 348 – 373 . PubMed doi:10.1123/mcj.11.4.348 10.1123/mcj.11.4.348 Bosga , J. , Meulenbroek , R