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James E. Johnson, Robert M. Turick, Michael F. Dalgety, Khirey B. Walker, Eric L. Klosterman, and Anya T. Eicher

Historically, discussions of academic rigor frequently use language that assumes the reader understands what is rigorous ( Johnson, Weidner, Jones, & Manwell, 2019 ). In truth, academic rigor is an ambiguous construct that has remained elusive to define but essential to the academy ( Graham & Essex

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Michelle R. Zitomer and Donna Goodwin

Qualitative inquiry is increasingly being used in adapted physical activity research, which raises questions about how to best evaluate its quality. This article aims to clarify the distinction between quality criteria (the what) and strategies (the how) in qualitative inquiry. An electronic keyword search was used to identify articles pertaining to quality evaluation published between 1995 and 2012 (n = 204). A five phase systematic review resulted in the identification of 56 articles for detailed review. Data extraction tables were generated and analyzed for commonalities in terminology and meanings. Six flexible criteria for gauging quality were formulated: reflexivity, credibility, resonance, significant contribution, ethics, and coherence. Strategies for achieving the established criteria were also identified. It is suggested that researchers indicate the paradigm under which they are working and guidelines by which they would like readers to evaluate their work as well as what criteria can be absent without affecting the research value.

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Michael J. Shoemaker, Michaela Mattern, Hannah Scholten, Jessica Zeitler, and Shweta Gore

authors about how to enhance the reporting of observational studies and also aides in the critical evaluation and analysis of studies by reviewers. 35 Therefore, the assessment of methodological rigor using the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies, Quality Appraisal tool for Validity Studies, and

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Alan D. Ruddock, Craig Boyd, Edward M. Winter, and Mayur Ranchordas

scientists will often encounter issues with sample size, randomization, absence of control groups, and conflicting priorities in the holistic development of the athletes. Nevertheless, this should not detract from the application of scientific rigor to scientific support and the reporting of this work as

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Byron Lai, Eunbi Lee, Mayumi Wagatsuma, Georgia Frey, Heidi Stanish, Taeyou Jung, and James H. Rimmer

. Rich and diverse adaptive programs 3. Strategies to increase intervention reach 1. Generalizability 2. Transferability 3. Scientific rigor 1. Long-term and sustainable postintervention outcomes 2. Precision-based interventions 3. Scalable interventions and recruitment strategies Promising Elements of

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Ross Wadey, Kylie Roy-Davis, Lynne Evans, Karen Howells, Jade Salim, and Ceri Diss

can be applied across a range of epistemological approaches including constructionism. On a final note, techniques to enhance methodological rigor were chosen that aligned with our paradigm. For example, the co-authors acted as critical friends to the first author during the data analysis. Rather than

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Bradley J. Baker, Thilo Kunkel, Jason P. Doyle, Yiran Su, Nataliya Bredikhina, and Rui Biscaia

, then we critically examined the methodological approaches used by sport branding researchers. The state-of-the-art picture on sport branding research reveals prevalent tendencies as well as important gaps in theory building and methodological rigor that require future attention. Theory The field of

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Andrew Hooyman, Alexander Garbin, and Beth Fisher

measured via electroencephalography. Theoretically then, successful modulation of M1-DLPFC resting-state circuitry would lead to major changes in motor behavior and learning. Further, we provide recommendations for maintaining scientific rigor that are meant to generalize beyond the single subject

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Roy David Samuel

& Norcross, 1994 ) to reach a decision to change ( Samuel & Tenenbaum, 2011b ). Each of the 4 referees was considered a unit of analysis and attention was given to the individuals’ unique experiences and to their shared experiences. Rigor and Quality of the Case Study I sought to maintain rigor throughout

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Matthew T. Mahar, Tyler R. Hall, Michael D. Delp, and James R. Morrow Jr.

Administrators of kinesiology departments (N = 101) completed a survey that requested information about online education, funding for online courses, and administrator perceptions of the rigor and future of online courses. More master's (n = 18) than undergraduate degree (n = 9) programs were totally online. Forty-nine percent of institutions provide funding to faculty and 37% provide funding to departments for online offerings. Respondents indicated concern about the rigor of online courses. Sixty-one percent indicated that academic rigor is a concern of faculty, 42% did not feel that totally online courses were as rigorous as face-to-face classes, and 65% indicated tests for online courses are not proctored. Despite concerns, 76% indicated they expect to have some or many online courses in the next 5-10 years. Few respondents indicated they expected to have no online courses or almost totally online delivery of courses. Online delivery of instruction is impacting kinesiology, and expansion of online education is likely.