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Alireza Esteghamati, Omid Khalilzadeh, Armin Rashidi, Mandana Kamgar, Alipasha Meysamie and Mehrshad Abbasi

Background:

Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain types of cancer. This study aimed to investigate the patterns and demographic correlates of physical activity in Iran.

Methods:

The data collected through the third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases (SuRFNCD-2007) on 4120 adults were studied. Physical activity was assessed by the global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ) in domains of work, commuting and recreation. Participants were categorized into low, moderate and high activity categories. Total physical activity (TPA) was calculated using metabolic equivalents (MET).

Results:

40% of Iranian adults (31.6% of men and 48.6% of women) belonged to the low physical activity category. The median value of TPA was 206 (342 in men and 129 in women) MET-minutes/day. Physical activity at work, commuting and recreation contributed to 71%, 20% and 9% of TPA, respectively. Approximately 15% of Iranian adults (4.7 million people) do not have any physical activity in any of the 3 studied domains.

Conclusions:

Physical inactivity is common in Iran, particularly in females and in the older age groups. Preventing a rapid growth of conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases requires health programs with more focus on physical activity.

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João Breno Ribeiro-Alvares, Maurício Pinto Dornelles, Carolina Gassen Fritsch, Felipe Xavier de Lima-e-Silva, Thales Menezes Medeiros, Lucas Severo-Silveira, Vanessa Bernardes Marques and Bruno Manfredini Baroni

. Previous HSIs and advanced age are accepted as the main nonmodifiable risk factors, 6 , 7 while prospective studies have found a higher incidence of HSIs in football players with poor flexibility, 8 , 9 low muscle strength, 10 – 12 short muscle fascicles, 12 and deficits in central stabilization (ie

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Peter T. Katzmarzyk and Amanda E. Staiano

guidelines scored better on several health indicators than those meeting fewer components of the guidelines. 8 The purpose of this study was to determine the association between meeting the 24-hour movement guidelines and cardiometabolic risk factors in white and African American children and adolescents

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Jérôme Vaulerin, Frédéric Chorin, Mélanie Emile, Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville and Serge S. Colson

, aerobic and resistance training sessions, etc) may also lead to injuries. 1 , 4 – 6 Among these injuries, musculoskeletal harm, such as sprains and strains, were often reported with an important occurrence of ankle sprains. 1 , 6 However, the risk factors that are associated with ankle sprains in

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Siobhán O’Connor, Noel McCaffrey, Enda F. Whyte, Michael Fop, Brendan Murphy and Kieran A. Moran

reported. 2 Poor hamstring flexibility has been proposed as a potential risk factor for sustaining a hamstring strain. 7 Sprinting is proposed to be a common mechanism of hamstring injury in field sports such as Gaelic games. 3 The hamstrings experience high loading when they are in a maximal or

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Jakob Tarp, Anna Bugge, Niels Christian Møller, Heidi Klakk, Christina Trifonov Rexen, Anders Grøntved and Niels Wedderkopp

youth may improve likelihood of a physically active adult life. 4 Additionally, high levels of cardiometabolic risk factors for noncommunicable diseases (ie, adiposity, blood pressure, lipids and glucose metabolism) in youth is associated with type 2 diabetes and advanced atherosclerosis in young

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Olga J.E. Kilkens, Britt A.J. Gijtenbeek, Jos W.R. Twisk, Willem van Mechelen and Han C.G. Kemper

The purpose of this study was (a) to investigate whether lifestyle risk factors cluster and (b) to investigate the influence of this clustering on biological CVD risk factors. This study was part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Study (AGHS), an observational longitudinal study in which 6 repeated measurements were carried out on 181 13-year-old subjects over a period of 15 years. A longitudinal analysis (carried out with generalized estimating equations) showed no significant clustering of lifestyle risk factors at the population level. For each subject at each separate measurement period, lifestyle risk factors were summed to form a cluster score. A longitudinal linear regression analysis showed no significant relationship between the cluster score and biological CVD risk factors, except for a significant inverse relationship with cardiopulmonary fitness. In general, however, the results did not support the assumption that clustering of unhealthy lifestyle is related to biological CVD risk factors.

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Scott Bonnette, Christopher A. DiCesare, Adam W. Kiefer, Michael A. Riley, Kim D. Barber Foss, Staci Thomas, Katie Kitchen, Jed A. Diekfuss and Gregory D. Myer

neuromuscular training interventions to reduce ACL injury risk reveals that while these interventions can reduce injury risk factors in the laboratory, their effects have not shown transfer to the actual sport environment, as injury rates have not declined despite the introduction of these programs. 20 – 24 A

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Samuel G. Wittekind, Nicholas M. Edwards, Philip R. Khoury, Connie E. McCoy, Lawrence M. Dolan, Thomas R. Kimball and Elaine M. Urbina

The prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in youth has increased in recent decades related to the pediatric obesity epidemic. 1 Lines of evidence reveal an association between low habitual physical activity (PA), obesity, and the accumulation of these risk factors. 2 , 3 Interventions

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Lars Bo Andersen, Niels Wedderkopp, Peter Kristensen, Niels Christian Moller, Karsten Froberg and Ashley R. Cooper

Background:

Cycling to school may potentially increase physical activity level in sedentary children. Transport to school occur twice a day and could improve cardiovascular health in children. Commuter cycling is associated with lower mortality and cardiovascular disease rate in adults, but limited evidence exists in children.

Methods:

Participants were 334 children (age 9.7 ± 0.5 years) who were followed up 6 years later. Mode of travel to school was investigated by questionnaire. Cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors were compared by mode of travel to school both at baseline and at follow up and for subjects who changed mode of transportation. No difference was found between walkers and passive travelers, and these groups were merged in the analysis.

Results:

A consistent pattern of better CVD risk factor profile in commuter cyclists compared with children using other means of transport was found. Participants, who did not cycle to school at baseline, and who had changed to cycling at follow up, were fitter, had better cholesterol/HDL ratio, better glucose metabolism, and a lower composite CVD risk factor score than those who did not cycle at either time point.

Conclusion:

Cycling to school may contribute to a better cardiovascular risk factor profile in young people.