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Mohammad Siahpush, Trish D. Levan, Minh N. Nguyen, Brandon L. Grimm, Athena K. Ramos, Tzeyu L. Michaud and Patrik L. Johansson

Background: The mortality benefits of meeting the US federal guidelines for physical activity, which includes recommendations for both aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities, have never been examined among smokers. Our aim was to investigate the association between reporting to meet the guidelines and all-cause, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease mortality among smokers. Methods: We pooled data from the 1998–2009 National Health Interview Survey, which were linked to records in the National Death Index (n = 68,706). Hazard ratios (HR) were computed to estimate the effect of meeting the physical activity guidelines on mortality. Results: Smokers who reported meeting the guidelines for physical activity had 29% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62–0.81), 46% lower risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR: 0.54; 95% CI, 0.39–0.76), and 26% lower risk of mortality from cancer (HR: 0.74; 95% CI, 0.59–0.93), compared with those who reported meeting neither the aerobic nor the muscle-strengthening recommendations of the guidelines. Meeting the aerobic recommendation of the guidelines was associated with a 42% decline in that risk (HR: 0.58; 95% CI, 0.44–0.77). Conclusion: Smokers who adhere to physical activity guidelines show a significant reduction in mortality.

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Jonatan R. Ruiz, Carmen Fiuza-Luces, Nuria Garatachea and Alejandro Lucia

For centuries, the general consensus has been that vigorous, competitive exercise was harmful and shortened life expectancy. Recent data from prospective cohort studies conducted on marathon runners, professional cyclists, and Olympic athletes indicate, however, that regular intense endurance-exercise training has protective benefits against cardiovascular disease and premature death. There are still important questions to be answered, such as what is the optimal dose, in terms of both duration and intensity of training or competition, beyond which the health benefits of regular exercise stabilize or might even potentially disappear.

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Ítalo Ribeiro Lemes, Xuemei Sui, Stacy L. Fritz, Paul F. Beattie, Carl J. Lavie, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch and Steven N. Blair

Background: To investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality in men with musculoskeletal conditions. Methods: Participants were 12,728 men (mean age 47.0 [9.3] y) with a history of musculoskeletal conditions (including joint pain, low back pain, stiff joints, arthritis, osteoporosis, or gout) and were followed for all-cause mortality to December 31, 2003. Fitness was quantified by maximal treadmill exercise test and was categorized for analysis as low, moderate, and high performance. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Overall, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for mortality across incremental fitness categories were 1.00 (reference), 0.45 (0.30–0.68) and 0.35 (0.22–0.53), linear trend P < .01 for all-cause, 0.50 (0.23–1.10) and 0.29 (0.12–0.71), linear trend P = .02 for cardiovascular disease, and 0.38 (0.20–0.74) and 0.40 (0.20–0.80), linear trend P = .01 for cancer mortality. Conclusion: Among men with musculoskeletal conditions, higher fitness is associated with lower risk of death by cardiovascular disease, cancer, or any cause, independent of other risk factors.

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María Hernández, Fabrício Zambom-Ferraresi, Pilar Cebollero, Javier Hueto, José Antonio Cascante and María M. Antón

a multidimensional scale that predicts the risk of death up to 4 years, was calculated. The BODE index consists of the following variables: body mass index (B), obstruction (O; i.e., FEV 1 ), dyspnea (D), and exercise (E; meters in the 6MWT). The score ranges between 0 and 10 points, and higher

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André O. Werneck, Edilson S. Cyrino, Paul J. Collings, Enio R.V. Ronque, Célia L. Szwarcwald, Luís B. Sardinha and Danilo R. Silva

region of 60–75 min/d) seemed to eliminate the increased risk of death associated with high overall sitting time, the increased risk of death associated with >5 hours of TV viewing per day was merely attenuated. Similar to Ekelund et al, 8 we observed that 2–4 hours per day of TV viewing was not

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Casey Mace Firebaugh, Simon Moyes, Santosh Jatrana, Anna Rolleston and Ngaire Kerse

Among older people, regular physical activity is associated with a variety of physical and mental health benefits, including reduced risk of death from cardiovascular disease, decreased risk of Type 2 diabetes, reduced risk of some cancers, reduced loss of bone mineral density and osteoporosis, and

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Sofia W. Manta, Paula F. Sandreschi, Thiago S. Matias, Camila Tomicki and Tânia R.B. Benedetti

Low levels of physical activity (PA), and long time in sedentary behavior, are associated with higher population mortality ( Brown et al., 2012 ; Chau et al., 2013 ). The practice of 60–75 min/day of moderate PA could reduce the risk of death associated with sedentary behavior ( Ekelund et

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Farnoosh Mafi, Soheil Biglari, Alireza Ghardashi Afousi and Abbas Ali Gaeini

individuals to the degree that they fall down while walking and may even increase the risk of death ( Kalinkovich & Livshits, 2015 ). The intensity and speed of sarcopenia progression are influenced by several factors, including genetics, resistance training, and nutrition ( Kalinkovich & Livshits, 2015

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Lukas K. Gaffney, Oscar D. Lozano, Adriana Almanza, Nubia Ruiz, Alejandro Mantero and Mark Stoutenberg

Update 2017 . Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development . https://www.oecd.org/els/health-systems/Obesity-Update-2017.pdf . Accessed September 8, 2018. 25. Zheng W , McLerran DF , Rolland B , et al . Association between body-mass index and risk of death in more than 1 million

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Jennifer L. Copeland

has been demonstrated perhaps most notably by Ekelund et al. ( 2016 ), who concluded that accumulating 60–75 min of MVPA per day eliminates the increased risk of death from excessive sitting time. As a point of interest, individuals with low levels of physical activity but a positive ratio of light