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Christopher P. Connolly, James M. Pivarnik, Lanay M. Mudd, Deborah L. Feltz, Rebecca A. Schlaff, Mark G. Lewis, Robert M. Silver and Maria K. Lapinski


Pregnancy risk perceptions and physical activity efficacy beliefs may facilitate or impede pregnancy leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). We examined the separate and joint influence of these variables on LTPA behavior among pregnant women.


Pregnant women (n = 302) completed a survey containing questions on LTPA efficacy beliefs and behavior, as well as pregnancy risk perceptions with respect to the health of the unborn baby. As stipulated by the Risk Perception Attitude (RPA) Framework, 4 attitudinal groups were created: Responsive (High Risk+High Efficacy), Proactive (Low+High), Avoidant (High+Low), and Indifferent (Low+Low). Moderate LTPA and vigorous LTPA were dichotomized for study analyses.


A total of 82 women (27.2%) met the moderate physical activity guideline and 90 women (30.1%) performed any vigorous LTPA. Responsive and proactive pregnant women (those with high efficacy) were most likely to meet the moderate guideline and participate in vigorous LTPA. Hierarchical logistic regression did not reveal an interactive effect of pregnancy risk perceptions and LTPA efficacy beliefs for meeting the moderate guideline (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.66–1.36) or any vigorous LTPA participation (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.86–2.29).


LTPA efficacy beliefs appear important in facilitating greater levels of pregnancy LTPA. Significant interactive effects between pregnancy risk perceptions and LTPA efficacy beliefs were not found.

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Kin-Kit Li, Lorna Ng, Sheung-Tak Cheng and Helene H. Fung

-Cheung ( 2013 ) found that loss-framed messages were more effective in eliciting cognitive processing about PA than gain-framed messages after exposure to health risk information. The results suggested that perceived risks of PA could be manipulated and that increased risk perception might favor a loss

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Amanda Kastrinos, Rachel Damiani and Debbie Treise

crisis. Despite the importance for understanding how athletes influenced public risk perception of the Olympics, no studies have yet investigated how Olympic athletes were portrayed in media coverage leading up to the Games. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore how the media framed athletes

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Israel Halperin

): 21 – 26 . 23444587 13. De Wit JB , Das E , Vet R . What works best: objective statistics or a personal testimonial? An assessment of the persuasive effects of different types of message evidence on risk perception . Health Psychol . 2008 ; 27 ( 1 ): 110 – 115 . PubMed ID: 18230021 doi:10

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Angela Coppola, Thomas Curran, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Luc Martin and Kathleen Wilson

are one common negative symptom for individuals with schizophrenia. The health action process approach (HAPA) model may be a particularly useful framework for this population given its distinction between social cognitive variables during the motivational (e.g., risk perceptions, outcome expectancy

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Jennifer D. Roberts, Lindsey Rodkey, Rashawn Ray and Brian E. Saelens

constraints, adolescent fear coping, and parental risk perceptions can influence adolescent AT patterns, most youth AT research has emphasized walking and cycling. 10 , 35 – 39 A few studies have examined public transportation and adolescent AT, but nearly all of those studies have occurred outside of the

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Arthur H. Bossi, Ciaran O’Grady, Richard Ebreo, Louis Passfield and James G. Hopker

Moreover, some studies in running also suggest sex-based differences in pacing strategy. 18 , 19 Men usually slow down more than women during a race, which authors attribute to distinct psychological traits, such as those related to confidence and risk perception. 18 , 19 Anecdotally, race dynamics in

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Michael J. Davies, Bradley Clark, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J. Gore and Kevin G. Thompson

. 2014 ; 46 ( 7 ): 1441 – 1451 . PubMed ID: 24300123 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000235 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000235 24300123 4. Micklewright D , Parry D , Robinson T , et al . Risk perception influences athletic pacing strategy . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2015 ; 47 ( 5 ): 1026 – 1037 . PubMed ID

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Georgios Nalbantis, Marcel Fahrner and Tim Pawlowski

( Gilbert, Lee-Kelley, & Barton, 2003 ) or risk perception ( Garbarino & Strahilevitz, 2004 ). Males are considered to be “quick shoppers,” which in turn may have an effect on their perception of the benefits of, or barriers to, online purchases ( Hansen & Jensen, 2009 ). However, several findings indicate

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Paul G. Schempp and Sophie Woorons

.1080/07303084.1997.10604892 Thomso , M.E. , Önkal , D. , Avcioglu , A. , & Goodwin , P. ( 2004 ). Aviation risk perception: A comparison between experts and novices . Risk Analysis: An International Journal, 24 ( 6 ), 1585 – 1595 . doi:10.1111/j.0272-4332.2004.00552.x 10.1111/j.0272-4332.2004.00552.x Tracey , J