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Carole Castanier, Christine Le Scanff and Tim Woodman

Sensation seeking has been widely studied when investigating individual differences in the propensity for taking risks. However, risk taking can serve many different goals beyond the simple management of physiological arousal. The present study is an investigation of affect self-regulation as a predictor of risk-taking behaviors in high-risk sport. Risk-taking behaviors, negative affectivity, escape self-awareness strategy, and sensation seeking data were obtained from 265 high-risk sportsmen. Moderated hierarchical regression analysis revealed significant main and interaction effects of negative affectivity and escape self-awareness strategy in predicting risk-taking behaviors: high-risk sportsmen’s negative affectivity leads them to adopt risk-taking behaviors only if they also use escape self-awareness strategy. Furthermore, the affective model remained significant when controlling for sensation seeking. The present study contributes to an in-depth understanding of risk taking in high-risk sport.

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Richard Johnston, Roisin Cahalan, Laura Bonnett, Matthew Maguire, Alan Nevill, Philip Glasgow, Kieran O’Sullivan and Thomas Comyns

management as an IP risk factor. A consensus statement from the 2016 conference “Monitoring Athlete Training Loads” 3 advised the monitoring of both internal and external TLs. External TL is the objective physical load applied to the athlete 4 (eg, distance covered, duration of session, or frequency of

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Deborah Laliberte Rudman and Michelle Durdle

This secondary analysis of data drawn from a descriptive phenomenological study explored how older adults with low vision experience and manage community mobility. Participants included 34 urban and rural older adults, age 70 years and older, who were not using low-vision-rehabilitation services. The findings convey a core element of the experience of community mobility for participants: living with a pervasive sense of fear regarding one’s body and way of being. Participants continually gauged risks associated with mobility and engaged in risk avoidance and management strategies. Community mobility was often restricted by participants because of perceived risks, leading to reduced participation in a range of physical, social, and other types of activities. Further research on environmental factors mediating community mobility and on strategies effective in maintaining mobility among seniors with low vision is essential to optimize participation, health, and service delivery.

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Robert M. Kaplan, Alison K. Herrmann, James T. Morrison, Laura F. DeFina and James R. Morrow Jr.

Background:

Despite benefits of physical activity (PA), exercise is also associated with risks. Musculoskeletal injury (MSI) risk increases with exercise frequency/intensity. MSI is associated with costs including medical care and time lost from work.

Purpose:

To evaluate the economic costs associated with PA-related MSIs in community-dwelling women.

Method:

Participants included 909 women in the Women’s Injury Study reporting PA behaviors and MSI incidence weekly via the Internet for up to 3 years (mean follow-up 1.89 years). Participants provided consent to obtain health records. Costs were estimated by medical records and self-reports of medical care. Components included physician visits, medical facility contacts, medication costs, and missed work.

Results:

Of 909 participants, 243 reported 323 episodes of expenditure or contact with the health care system associated with PA. Total costs of episodes ranged from $0–$18,934. Modal cost was $0 (mean = $433 ± $1670). Costs were positively skewed with nearly all participants reporting no or very low costs.

Conclusions:

About 1 in 4 community-dwelling women who are physically active experienced a PA-related MSI. The majority of injuries were minor, and large expenses associated with MSI were rare. The long-term health benefits and costs savings resulting from PA likely outweigh the minor costs associated with MSI from a physically-active lifestyle.

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Ana Katherine Gonçalves, Gilzandra Lira Dantas Florêncio, Maria José Maissonnete de Atayde Silva, Ricardo Ney Cobucci, Paulo César Giraldo and Nancy Michelle Cote

Background:

Observational studies have reported an association between physical activity and breast cancer risk reduction. This study aims to evaluate the effect of physical activity on breast cancer prevention.

Methods:

Articles were identified through literature available on Electronic databases (Pubmed, Embase, Scielo, Cochrane, CINAHL, Cancerlit, and Google Scholar) and manual searches. Case control and cohort studies were assessed for methodological quality, using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale.

Results:

Size, population, components, and characteristics of physical activity, and menopausal status were documented. Review Manager 5.1 performed analysis using the statistical method of Mantel-Haenszel. Fixed-effect analysis with dichotomous data, testing subgroups and calculating odds ratio with a confidence interval of 95% were used. Main results: 7 cohort studies and 14 case control studies were evaluated. Statistical evidence found that physical activity reduces the risk of breast cancer in case-control studies [OR = 0.84 (0.81–0.88)] (heterogeneity 72%) and cohort studies [OR = 0.61 (0.59–0.63)] (heterogeneity 100%).

Conclusion:

Physical activity seems to prevent breast cancer mainly in postmenopausal women.

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Jamie Cleland

for terrorism and has resulted in the implementation of risk management strategies seeking to address this threat. Not surprisingly, this has led to an emerging academic focus on the levels of risk, security, surveillance, and terrorism at elite sports events in the twenty-first century, most notably

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Scott Bonnette, Christopher A. DiCesare, Adam W. Kiefer, Michael A. Riley, Kim D. Barber Foss, Staci Thomas, Katie Kitchen, Jed A. Diekfuss and Gregory D. Myer

potential ending of an athletic career, 5 greatly amplified risk of a subsequent ACL injury, likelihood for long-term disability, 6 and risk of early osteoarthritis and chronic pain. 7 – 9 Current reports conservatively estimate $17,000 to $25,000 in costs per ACL injury with an annual economic burden in

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Margaret C. Morrissey, Michael R. Szymanski, Andrew J. Grundstein and Douglas J. Casa

myriad of other factors ( Belval et al., 2018 ; Casa et al., 2015 ; Périard, Racinais, & Sawka, 2015 ; Rav-Acha, Hadad, Epstein, Heled, & Moran, 2004 ). Many of these key items are addressed in this review. Table  1 presents predisposing factors that may increase the risk of EHS. It is imperative to

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Bryan Holtzman, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale and Kathryn E. Ackerman

other health consequences as secondary effects ( Nattiv et al., 2007 ). Risk assessment tools were developed for Triad ( De Souza et al., 2014 ) and RED-S ( Mountjoy et al., 2015 ). The Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment (Triad CRA) uses a scoring system ( De Souza et al., 2014 ) based on six symptoms

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Anna K. Porter, Samantha Schilsky, Kelly R. Evenson, Roberta Florido, Priya Palta, Katelyn M. Holliday and Aaron R. Folsom

There is substantial evidence of an inverse dose–response relationship between physical activity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. 1 , 2 Physical activity is also important for the prevention and management of risk factors for CVD, such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin