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Carole Castanier, Christine Le Scanff, and Tim Woodman

Sensation seeking has been widely studied when investigating individual differences in the propensity for taking risks. However, risk taking can serve many different goals beyond the simple management of physiological arousal. The present study is an investigation of affect self-regulation as a predictor of risk-taking behaviors in high-risk sport. Risk-taking behaviors, negative affectivity, escape self-awareness strategy, and sensation seeking data were obtained from 265 high-risk sportsmen. Moderated hierarchical regression analysis revealed significant main and interaction effects of negative affectivity and escape self-awareness strategy in predicting risk-taking behaviors: high-risk sportsmen’s negative affectivity leads them to adopt risk-taking behaviors only if they also use escape self-awareness strategy. Furthermore, the affective model remained significant when controlling for sensation seeking. The present study contributes to an in-depth understanding of risk taking in high-risk sport.

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Agnès Bonnet, Vincent Bréjard, and Jean-Louis Pedinielli

Objectives for this study were, first, to describe individual differences in risk taking among scuba divers. Differences were examined on personality dimensions and psycho-affective variables, including positive and negative affect, as well as alexithymia. In addition, the study examined contributors to two types of behavior associated with scuba diving—deliberate risk taking and controlled participation in a high-risk sport (non-risk-taking). A cross-sectional design was used, and 131 participants were assessed on extraversion-neuroticism, affectivity, and alexithymia. The broad dimensions of personality and affectivity explained risk taking among divers. Alexithymia differentially predicted two types of risktaking behavior (direct or short-term and indirect or long-term) and was associated significantly with short-term risk-taking behavior.

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Agnès Bonnet, Lydia Fernandez, Annie Piolat, and Jean-Louis Pedinielli

The notion of risk-taking implies a cognitive process that determines the level of risk involved in a particular activity or task. This risk appraisal process gives rise to emotional responses, including anxious arousal and changes in mood, which may play a significant role in risk-related decision making. This study examines how emotional responses to the perceived risk of a scuba-diving injury contribute to divers’ behavior, as well as the ways that risk taking or non-risk taking behavior, in turn, affects emotional states. The study sample consisted of 131 divers (risk takers and non-risk takers), who either had or had not been in a previous diving accident. Divers’ emotional states were assessed immediately prior to diving, as well as immediately following a dive. Results indicated presence of subjective emotional experiences that are specific to whether a risk has been perceived and whether a risk has been taken. Important differences in emotion regulation were also found between divers who typically take risks and those who do not.

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Megan M. Gardner, Jeff T. Grimm, and Bradley T. Conner

participating in more traditional sports. With substantiated medical evidence arising regarding adverse injury and death outcomes resulting from participating in extreme sports, it is critical to understand the underlying factors that drive risk-taking behaviors in specific individuals in this context ( Laver

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Serge Brand, Markus Gerber, Flora Colledge, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Uwe Pühse, and Sebastian Ludyga

’s values, and to compare and increase their social acceptance among their peer groups ( Steinberg, 2016 ). Furthermore, compared with children and adults, adolescents show increased risk-taking behavior ( Steinberg, 2010 ), and such risk-taking behavior also involves behavior in social interactions. A

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Stine Nylandsted Jensen, Andreas Ivarsson, Johan Fallby, and Anne-Marie Elbe

dependence, sensation seeking, and risk-taking behaviors as well as impulsivity ( Mastroleo, Scaglione, Mallett, & Turrisi, 2013 ). In line with this, a recent study by Grall-Bronnec et al. ( 2016 ) conducted in seven sports in seven European countries found that professional athletes are more exposed to

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Mattias Eckerman, Kjell Svensson, Gunnar Edman, and Marie Alricsson

assertiveness and/or detachment ). The same study also did not report risk-taking behavior as a risk factor. Osborn et al 11 reported significantly higher values on sensation seeking among players with many injuries compared with players with fewer injuries among hockey players. In the present study, FIP

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Sinéad O’Keeffe, Niamh Ní Chéilleachair, and Siobhán O’Connor

responses (risk taking behaviors, rehabilitation adherence, tension, anger, depression, grief, or emotional coping) can alter the psychological response to injury. 17 The stress–athletic injury model highlights that an athlete who exhibits increased amounts of stress due to their personality, history of

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Heather J. Lawrence, James Strode, Robert E. Baker, and Paul C. Benedict

framework. Ratten ( 2011 ) noted that “sport-based entrepreneurship involves proactive, innovation and risk-taking behavior” (pp. 66–67). This general concept of sport entrepreneurship can be applied to academic entrepreneurship as well ( Lawrence et al., 2019 ). By leveraging the entrepreneurial nature of

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Andrea Stracciolini, Caitlin M. McCracken, William P. Meehan III, and Matthew D. Milewski

. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 37 ( 7 ), 736 – 744 . 10.1093/jpepsy/jsr087 O’Brien , E.M. , & Mindell , J.A. ( 2005 ). Sleep and risk-taking behavior in adolescents . Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 3 ( 3 ), 113 – 133 .