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Emanuele D’Artibale, Maheswaran Rohan and John B. Cronin

Motorcycle road racing competitions are considered a high-risk sporting activity 1 – 4 that is popular worldwide 5 , 6 and is regulated by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM), which has supervised international championships since 1949. The considerable racing budgets and

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Olaf Hoos, Tobias Boeselt, Martin Steiner, Kuno Hottenrott and Ralph Beneke

Purpose:

To analyze time-domain, spectral, and fractal properties of speed regulation during half-marathon racing.

Methods:

In 21 male experienced runners, high-resolution data on speed (V), stride frequency (SF), and stride length (SL) were assessed during half-marathon competition (21,098 m). Performance times, timeand frequency-domain variability, spectral-scaling exponent (beta), and fractal dimension (FD) of V, SF, and SL were analyzed.

Results:

V of 3.65 ± 0.41 m/s, SF of 1.41 ± 0.05 Hz, and SL of 2.58 ± 0.25 m occurred with higher (P < .05) individual variability in V and SL than in SF. Beta and FD were always 1.04–1.88 and 1.56–1.99, respectively. Beta and FD differed (P < .05) in SF and SL compared with V and were correlated in V and SL (r = .91, P < .05). Spectral peaks of V, SF, and SL occurred at wavelengths of 3–35 min, and those of V and SL were interrelated (r = .56, P < .05). Mean SF and mean SL were significantly correlated with performance (r = .59 and r = .95, P < .05). SL accounted for 84% ± 6% and SF for 16% ± 6% of speed variability.

Conclusions:

The observed nonrandom fluctuations in V, SF, and SL correspond to nonstationary fractional Brownian motion with inherent long-range correlations. This indicates a similar complex regulation process in experienced runners that is primarily mediated via SL.

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Jill M. Slade, Hector De Los Santos-Posadas and M. Elaine Cress

This study examined the change in 15K running performance for master runners over 21 years (1978–1998). Official times were collected for 60 male runners from the same running event. Trends in running performance were analyzed with several models (linear, polynomial, and segmented-line). A self-report questionnaire was used to quantify training and to characterize runners. Peak age of running performance was indirectly estimated at 33 years using a second-degree polynomial. The performance trend was also associated with an inflection point at age 41 directly estimated from a nonlinear, segmented, mixed-effects model (95% confidence interval: 38.77–42.44). After age 41, master runners ran nearly 1 min slower each year. Besides age, other parameters that influenced performance over time included type of training (interval training) and body weight. These data might be among the first to describe the trend in running performance for a group of master athletes, most of whom were noncompetitive runners.

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Chris R. Abbiss, Paolo Menaspà, Vincent Villerius and David T. Martin

A number of laboratory-based performance tests have been designed to mimic the dynamic and stochastic nature of road cycling. However, the distribution of power output and thus physical demands of high-intensity surges performed to establish a breakaway during actual competitive road cycling are unclear. Review of data from professional road-cycling events has indicated that numerous short-duration (5–15 s), high-intensity (~9.5–14 W/kg) surges are typically observed in the 5–10 min before athletes’ establishing a breakaway (ie, riding away from a group of cyclists). After this initial high-intensity effort, power output declined but remained high (~450–500 W) for a further 30 s to 5 min, depending on race dynamics (ie, the response of the chase group). Due to the significant influence competitors have on pacing strategies, it is difficult for laboratory-based performance tests to precisely replicate this aspect of mass-start competitive road cycling. Further research examining the distribution of power output during competitive road racing is needed to refine laboratory-based simulated stochastic performance trials and better understand the factors important to the success of a breakaway.

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Avish P. Sharma, Adrian D. Elliott and David J. Bentley

Context:

Road cycle racing is characterized by significant variability in exercise intensity. Existing protocols attempting to model this aspect display inadequate variation in power output. Furthermore, the reliability of protocols representative of road cycle racing is not well known. There are also minimal data regarding the physiological parameters that best predict performance during variable-power cycling.

Purpose:

To determine the reliability of mean power output during a new test of variable-power cycling and establish the relationship between physiological attributes typically measured during an incremental exercise test and performance during the variable-power cycling test (VCT).

Methods:

Fifteen trained male cyclists (mean ± SD age 33 ± 6.5 y, VO2max 57.9 ± 4.8 mL · kg−1 · min−1) performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion for determination of physiological attributes, 2 VCTs (plus familiarization), and a 30-km time trial. The VCT was modeled on data from elite men’s road racing and included significant variation in power output.

Results:

Mean power output during the VCT showed good reliability (r = .92, CV% = 1.98). Relative power during the self-paced sections of the VCT was most correlated with maximal aerobic power (r = .79) and power at the second ventilatory threshold (r = .69). Blood lactate concentration showed poor reliability between trials (CV% = 13.93%).

Conclusions:

This study has demonstrated a new reliable protocol simulating the stochastic nature of road cycling races. Further research is needed to determine which factors predict performance during variable-power cycling and the validity of the test in monitoring longitudinal changes in cycling performance.

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Teun van Erp, Carl Foster and Jos J. de Koning

the relationship between various TLs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between various TL measures based on HR, RPE, and PO during training, road racing, and TT in a group of elite cyclists, across multiple seasons. We hypothesized that the relationship between TLs

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Ari de Wilde

long distance women’s road racing.” 9 Lucas does this by examining source material from the 1950s to the 1990s, and finds numerous ways that promoters and governing bodies have negatively gendered bicycle racing. Her work represents a path-breaking approach to the study of bicycle racing. In this

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Shelley Lucas

-dominated sphere of road racing, in terms of governance, participation, opportunities and rewards. As Sarah Ahmed writes in On Being Included , “power can be redone at the moment it is imagined as undone.” 20 For the Coors Classic, organizers did include a women’s event, but at the same time, they inscribed

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Gabriella McLoughlin, Courtney Weisman Fecske, Yvette Castaneda, Candace Gwin and Kim Graber

basketball ( n  = 13), wheelchair track/road racing ( n  = 9), and swimming ( n  = 1). Physical disabilities varied and included spinal cord injury ( n  = 11), cerebral palsy ( n  = 4), spina bifida ( n  = 3), limb amputations ( n  = 2), osteogenesis ( n  = 1), and transverse myelitis ( n  = 1). One

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Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Stefania Di Gangi and Beat Knechtle

, Switzerland, with a waiver of the requirement for informed consent given that the study involved the analysis of publicly available data. Data Sampling and Data Analysis The dataset for this study was obtained from the website of the Association of Road Racing Statisticians (ARRS), www