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Ross E. Andersen, Adrian E. Bauman, Shawn C. Franckowiak, Sue M. Reilley and Alison L. Marshall

Background:

This intervention promoted stair use among people attending the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) annual meeting.

Methods:

All attendees using the stairs or escalators in the main lobby were unobtrusively observed for 3 days and coded for activity choices to get to the second floor. During day 2, a prominent sign stating “Be a role model. Use the stairs!” encouraged point-of-choice decisions favoring stairs over the escalator. The sign was removed on day 3.

Results:

16,978 observations were made. Stair use increased from 22.0% on day 1 to 29.3% and 26.8% on days 2 and 3, respectively (P values < .001). Active choices (stair use or walk up escalator) increased from 28.3% on day 1 to 40.1% and 40.2% on subsequent days. Analyses were similar after adjustment for gender, estimated age category, and race.

Conclusions:

Relatively few conference attendees were persuaded to model stair-use behavior. Health professionals should be encouraged to be “active living” role models.

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Susan M. Molstad

Male (N=121) and female (N=135) high school girls’ basketball coaches responded to three forced-choice questions related to gender and role modeling. Both genders said they preferred coaching girls to boys. Male coaches thought female athletes preferred a male coach, female coaches thought they preferred a female coach. Coaches of each gender perceived themselves as equal or better role models than their counterparts. Coaches were then asked to rank order the importance of six coaching qualities previously identified as either expressive or instrumental. First they ranked the qualities in importance as they perceived them, then in the order they thought players would rank them. Coaches differed significantly by gender on the rankings of the qualities, as well as their perceptions of how athletes might rank the same qualities. Implications for modeling and young female athletes are discussed in relation to gender differences in these perceptions.

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Matea Wasend and Nicole M. LaVoi

relevant and valued (and who is not)” ( LaVoi, 2016b , p. 3). The message being sent to girls and women who grow up with a lack of same-sex role models in coaching positions is no professional place exists for them in athletics, potentially compounding the problem ( Rhode & Walker, 2008 ). As Schull ( 2017

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Scott B. Martin, Peggy A. Richardson, Karen H. Weiller and Allen W. Jackson

During the past decade females have had more opportunities to participate in sports at various levels than ever before. These opportunities and the recognition received due to their success may have changed peoples’ views regarding same-sex role models, perceived parental encouragement, and expectations of success. Thus, the purpose of the study was to explore role models, perceived encouragement to participate in youth sport from parents, and sport expectations of adolescent athletes and their parents living in the United States of America. A questionnaire was administered to 426 adolescent athletes who competed in youth sport leagues and to one parent within each family unit (n=426). Chi square analysis indicated significant relationships between athletes’ gender and the gender of their role model and between parents’ gender and the gender of their role model (p = .0001). DM MANOVA revealed a significant multivariate difference for adolescent athletes and their parents on the questions concerning expectations for future athletic success. Post hoc analyses indicated that the athletes were more likely than their parents to believe that they could play at the college, Olympic, or professional levels. In addition, boys were more likely than girls to believe that they could play at the college, Olympic, and professional levels.

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Reuben A. Buford May

It is a generally accepted belief, affirmed in the media, that professional Black male basketball players from the National Basketball Association serve as role models for young Black males. Very little empirical evidence, however, is available about how the young men think about these relationships. Using the concept of role model from social learning theory as a lens, I analyze interview data drawn from a convenience sample of 19 young Black men who participated in high school basketball to investigate the idea of “professional Black male basketball players as role models.” I find that young men do not necessarily accept the “good/bad” role-model dichotomy presented in the media, but rather, they are discerning in their acceptance and rejection of certain role-model attitudes and behaviors.

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Edited by Thomas W. Rowland

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Edited by Carl Foster, Stephen Seiler, Aaron Coutts, Shona Halson, Franco Impellizzeri, Jos de Koning, Renate M. Leithäuser, Michael McGuigan, Iñigo Mujika, David Pyne and Ralph Beneke

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Yi-nam Suen, Ester Cerin, Anthony Barnett, Wendy Y.J. Huang and Robin R. Mellecker

Background:

Valid instruments of parenting practices related to children’s physical activity (PA) are essential to understand how parents affect preschoolers’ PA. This study developed and validated a questionnaire of PA-related parenting practices for Chinese-speaking parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong.

Methods:

Parents (n = 394) completed a questionnaire developed using findings from formative qualitative research and literature searches. Test-retest reliability was determined on a subsample (n = 61). Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Subscale internal consistency was determined.

Results:

The scale of parenting practices encouraging PA comprised 2 latent factors: Modeling, structure and participatory engagement in PA (23 items), and Provision of appropriate places for child’s PA (4 items). The scale of parenting practices discouraging PA scale encompassed 4 latent factors: Safety concern/overprotection (6 items), Psychological/behavioral control (5 items), Promoting inactivity (4 items), and Promoting screen time (2 items). Test-retest reliabilities were moderate to excellent (0.58 to 0.82), and internal subscale reliabilities were acceptable (0.63 to 0.89).

Conclusion:

We developed a theory-based questionnaire for assessing PA-related parenting practices among Chinese-speaking parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. While some items were context and culture specific, many were similar to those previously found in other populations, indicating a degree of construct generalizability across cultures.

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Stephanie Schoeppe, Markus Röbl, Sebastian Liersch, Christian Krauth and Ulla Walter

Purpose:

To investigate associations between maternal and paternal sport participation, and children’s leisure-time physical activity, and to explore differences by child gender.

Method:

The sample comprised 737 year five students (mean age: 11.0 ± 0.6 years, 52% male) recruited through the Fit for Pisa Project which was conducted in 2008 at 6 secondary schools in Goettingen, Germany. Maternal and paternal sport participation were assessed through child reports of mothers’ and fathers’ weekly participation in sport. Children’s leisure-time physical activity was measured as minutes/week that children engaged in organized and nonorganized sport. Multiple linear regression was used to assess associations between maternal and paternal sport participation, and children’s leisure-time physical activity.

Results:

Both maternal and paternal sport participation were positively associated with children’s leisure-time physical activity (maternal: b = 34.20, p < .001; paternal: b = 25.32, p < .05). When stratifying analyses by child gender, maternal sport participation remained significantly associated with leisure-time physical activity in girls (b = 60.64, p < .001). In contrast, paternal sport participation remained significantly associated with leisure-time physical activity in boys (b = 43.88, p < .01).

Conclusion:

Both maternal and paternal modeling positively influence children’s leisure-time physical activity.

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David Ekholm

, this is the case for relations between marginalized youngsters and role models within the same community ( Richardson, 2012 ). Moreover, bonding relations through participation in sport have been of particular importance for people who share traumatic experiences ( Walseth, 2016 ). Notably, bonding