is likely an antecedent to a number of valued outcomes, such as enhancing role perceptions, fostering group cohesion, and engendering greater commitment among group members ( Hackman, 2012 ). As such, systematically investigating the socialization tactics used in sport teams has broad implications
Alex J. Benson, Mark A. Eys and P. Gregory Irving
Many athletes experience a discrepancy between the roles they expect to fulfill and the roles they eventually occupy. Drawing from met expectations theory, we applied response surface methodology to examine how role expectations, in relation to role experiences, influence perceptions of group cohesion among Canadian Interuniversity Sport athletes (N = 153). On the basis of data from two time points, as athletes approached and exceeded their role contribution expectations, they reported higher perceptions of task cohesion. Furthermore, as athletes approached and exceeded their social involvement expectations, they reported higher perceptions of social cohesion. These response surface patterns—pertaining to task and social cohesion—were driven by the positive influence of role experiences. On the basis of the interplay between athletes’ role experiences and their perception of the group environment, efforts to improve team dynamics may benefit from focusing on improving the quality of role experiences, in conjunction with developing realistic role expectations.
While there have been increasing opportunities for sport psychology practitioners in cricket, there are concerns regarding employment practices in the field and the knock-on impact on the practitioners. The aim of this research was to explore the experiences, reflections, challenges, and opportunities perceived by practitioners regarding their own roles delivering sport psychology in elite cricket. Participants were 12 sport psychology practitioners (8 male and 4 female) purposively selected based on their experience working in cricket. Participants were interviewed to gain an understanding of their experiences working as sport psychology practitioners. The data were thematically analyzed, resulting in the emergence of 7 higher order themes: the role, perceptions of the psychologist, consultation approach, limiting factors, first-team environment, challenges faced, and proposed changes. Results suggest that there are similarities in the challenges experienced across professional clubs and at different levels in cricket. Broader challenges for the clubs, the national governing body, and the sport psychology profession also emerged.
Emmanuel O. Ojeme
This paper describes a study conducted to determine the role perception and enactment (or performance) of secondary school physical educators as well as the magnitude of role deficits that physical educators experience in schools. The data for the study were collected using a 28-item test instrument classified into four role-subsets of teaching, coaching and sports administration, research and development, and student welfare roles. The results indicated that the physical educators studied possess an acceptable perception of their roles, and that they differentially enact or perform these roles. The coaching and sports administration role-subset is more enacted by physical educators than are teaching, research and development, and student welfare roles, respectively. Furthermore, the magnitude of role deficits experienced by physical educators is higher for teaching, research and development, and student welfare roles compared with role deficits in the coaching and sports administration role-subset. Further studies are required to ascertain the forces that shape the role of physical educators in the school system as well as the sources of role deficits.
Dean J. Kriellaars, John Cairney, Marco A.C. Bortoleto, Tia K.M. Kiez, Dean Dudley and Patrice Aubertin
different literacies, especially literacy and numeracy. Plausible explanations for this finding relate to how PE may help to shape or reproduce overall sex role perceptions across school settings ( Hedlin, 2013 ). Alternatively, CAI-PE may play an important role in ameliorating attitudinal differences
Adam Love and Seungmo Kim
of pharmaceutical sales teams . Unpublished data analysis, Indiana University School of Business , Bloomington . McAllister , S.B. , Kamdar , D. , Morrison , E.W. , & Turban , D.B. ( 2007 ). Disentangling role perceptions: How perceived role breadth, discretion, instrumentality, and
Zenzi Huysmans, Damien Clement, Robert Hilliard and Adam Hansell
skills outcomes to actual evidence-based coaching practices that promote life skills outcomes across different youth contexts remains unclear ( Vella et al., 2011 ). Further research exploring the role perceptions and intentional strategies of youth coaches in promoting life skills outcomes in young
Qingru Xu and Andrew C. Billings
Communication, 50 ( 2 ), 3 – 26 . doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2000.tb02839.x 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2000.tb02839.x Zhu , J.H. , Weaver , D. , Lo , V.H. , Chen , C. , & Wu , W. ( 1997 ). Individual, organizational, and societal influences on media role perceptions: A comparative study of journalists in